What we need to do to avoid ethical misconduct in research

How to avoid plagiarism in academic writing? The two methods described below, it may be helpful to us:

1 Interpretation method (with our own language to rewrite)

As we write the paper, we should clearly indicate the books and articles we have consulted, and in some parts of the article (such as the literature review), the information provided by these references will be used more and more.

Not only we have to present the important information, we should also explain them, and compare the differences between different authors and different points of view, and add our own comments on the issues discussed. In short, to accomplish the task of academic writing, we should not only repeat the information we have found, because the information is repeated showing that they have been read and concerned, and the interpretation of these information, control, comparison and comments are not only read, but also be analyzed and understood.

2 Principles of direct citation

When we see some statements that are closely related to our argument / discussion, we may directly quote the original text when we think that it will reduce the influence and effect of the original text, or that some information needs to be expressed in a unique way. At this point we must follow the following principles: in our article, we should try to quote a few words in a large paragraph (for example), and if we do, don’t let the quoted words take up much of our paper. We have to separate the text from the text we have and the words we write. If there is a need, we can refer to a very short section from the literature (as part of a sentence), but we must let our readers know very well that the text is what we refer to. At the same time, we must be careful not to change the spelling and language of the original text.

(1) Skills of direct citation

In order to avoid plagiarism suspicion, we must be very clearly marked with our article which quoted from other papers, we must also indicate the starting position of the introduction and it in the original page. Such as:
Case 1. If we cite more than 2 lines of text, we should use the indent and use italic to clearly mark the length of citation.

When we discuss how to use the Internet for research work, Li Pusen proposed the following advice: don’t put too many things from the Internet to our notebook. It’s hard to guarantee who wrote it, so it’s easy to get into trouble. When we really want to extract some of the material, there must be some permanent way, indicate which is the words and opinions of other people, we first get them from where. This is very important. We must also confirm the number of sources of information, first in our notebook, is in our essay. Once we begin to write or draw something on our laptop, we need to have a way of distinguishing between we and our copy.
(Li Pusen 2006, P12)

Case 2. The starting position of the shorter the length of the quotation should be clearly marked.

On how to use the Internet to do research work, Lipson proposed “when we really want to extract some material, there must be some permanent way and indicate which is the words and opinions of other people, we get them from? Where in the first place. This is very important’ (2006, p12). This advice is not only for the use of the Internet, it should be extended to a wider area: the use of any information resources in academic research, from the beginning should have a clear awareness and correct method, what is our copy of the East West, which is our own thing.

(2) Mark citations

There are different ways to indicate the source, we can consult the tutor which method is more desirable, or we use our reading of the literature, the author of the most frequently used way, once we choose a certain way, we want to keep consistent.

The two most commonly used methods are:
– Footnotes or endnotes
In a paper, a number of digits is indicated in the upper right corner of the word, and the source of the citation is stated at the end of the page or the end of the whole article.
– Brief quotation indicated in the article
In the text of our paper, the author’s name and the date of publication of the work are indicated. The reader may be able to learn the full information of the citation from the end of the article.

Whether we are using a footnote, endnote, or in the simple specify the citation of the source, we must provide complete information about the citation sources, no matter which way we use must remain consistent.
The sources of information must include the following elements:
– Author name
– Article name (number / the title and the title of the work roll in the journal paper number, by name and the set name)
– Publishers
– Publishing date

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