Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language. It is evolved out of the various mutually intelligible dialects of Prakarit ,used across India long before the invasion of Muslims. The Muslims enriched it by incorporating Persian, Turkish and Arabic words. They employed the Parso-Arabic script for the local dialects(Rehman,2011,Islam,2011).It is one of the largest languages of the Indian subcontinent with native speakers of over sixty million ,and an official language in Pakistan and the Indian states of Utter Pradesh, Kashmir and Delhi(Martindale,2009).Urdu is known as second most spoken language of the world after Chinese and English(Rehman,2004,Grimes,2000). It is spoken and perceived all over the world ,in large communities like Gulf, UK, Afghanistan, Thailand, Nepal, Turkey, USA, Australia, Fiji, Zambia, Mauritius and Malawi(Junior,2005). The profundity and depth of Urdu is astonishingly, deep rooted in different languages, with rich and varied cultures.
The Urdu Vocabulary is enriched with every shade of emotions. The undertaken research aims at Urdu Morphology, or the study of the Urdu structure of the word. For example, the word “لفظ) “lafz, word) describes how “الفاظ) “alfaaz, words) is inflected from it. The definition of morphology leads to the concept of morpheme the smallest unit of meaning or smallest recurring unit. The relation of morphology to morpheme is same as that of the syntax to the words. Morphemes express concepts like “بادل)“( cloud), “پنکھا “ ( fan), or relationship like “مند) in “مند دولت) ( rich) and “بے “ in “جان بے) ( lifeless). Morpheme also can express syntactic features for example number (singular, plural) e.g., “پودا ( plant), “پودے) ( plants) Gender (male, female) e.g., “گیا) went, inflected for masculine), “گئ) went, inflected for feminine). The term “morph”, represents morphemes as parts of a word, e.g., In the word “پر) ( feather) the morpheme “پر” is realized as the morph “پر “to form the word “پر” ( feather). In, “پروں) ( feathers), the morpheme “پر) and the plural morpheme are realized as “پر“+ “وں) respectively to form the word “پروں) /feathers). The term allomorphs represent different forms of a morpheme. e.g., the plural morpheme in Urdu has several allomorphs. Plural of “پودا” is “پودے” plural of “پھول” is “پھولوں”. The morphemes are further categorized as free morphemes (can form words by themselves) e.g., “بارش “, “آسمان “and bound morphemes (must be combined with other words) to form words e.g., “با” in “باعزت”. Words in Urdu language can be free morphemes only, bound morphemes only, free and bound morphemes jointly. As far as Urdu morphology is concerned, it lies in the category of morphologically rich languages (MRLs) like Arabic, Persian, Chinese, Turkish, Finnish, and Korean. The RLs require considerable challenges for natural language processing, machine translation and speech processing (Abdul-Mageed and Korayem, 2010). These languages are distinctive due to highly productive and frequent morphological processes at the word level, e.g., compounding, reduplication, inflection, agglutination and derivation, etc. Following are the morphological processes in Urdu language to form new words(Abdul-Mageed and Korayem,2010).
Derivational words are formed with affixation added to a word or a root (Clark1995).
Prefixes in the Urdu language do not usually change the word class. Prefixes have a light stress on their first (or only) syllable. The main stress of the word coming on the base تھک in”ان تھک”(Untired) دین in “بے دین “(Secular).(Abrar et al,2012).
Suffixes frequently change the word class of the root, for example, the suffix اندوز. When this suffix is added with زخیرہ, it changes the whole meaning of the root, word زخیرہ اندوز(black marketing).(Abrar, et.al,2012).
Conversion is a derivational process to create additional lexical items from existing items, for example, satan((شیطانused in a sense of an evil person(بد طینت) but is also used for the fallen angel (ابلیس) who tempted Adam and disobeyed God(Abrar,et.al,2012).
2.5.5.Inflection in Urdu:
Inflection is used to form grammatical forms as past(ماضی), present(حال), future(مستقبل); singular (واحد)and plural(جمع); masculine (مزکر)and feminine(مونث), neuter from a single lexeme. The suffixes are fusional, consisting on single syllable or a single vowel, and mark varied features. Indistinguishable forms happen within or between inflectional model .For example, the suffix( ى :yeh)denotes masculine oblique case or plural number on adjectives, but also indicates the subjoined form of verbs (Hardie, 2004) for example, these Urdu nouns, indicate singular and plural as لڑکیاں, (girls) کرسیاں, (chairs) کاپیاں, (copies).(Abrar,et.al,2012).
The lexicon can be set bounds to single words, but sometimes a single word, for any object, in a language, may have several words in another language . Compounds can be written as one word; They are also like other lexical entries in a dictionary. They may be different from single words only for being written as two or more words orthographically. (Schmitt and McCarthy, 1997, p.44) for example,سر سبز زمین(green land)and نیلاسمندر(blue sea). Compounds in Urdu may be set forth semantically and grammatically. There is a further difference between derivation and compounding. Compounding is a kind of word-formation which involves combining two,independent words. Derivation involves dependent nouns as suffixes or prefixes. (Abrar,et.al,2012).
In Sociolinguistics, borrowing is a process in which one language takes a word from other language and it is called a loan word. Borrowing, is not estimated justly by all members of the language community. In language academies, they mostly attempted to keep the language “pure” by exhibiting borrowed words. For example, France, by law, has tried to prevent the borrowed English words in French language (Hatch and Brown, 1995).Many words from other languages like English, Arabic, Hindi, and Persian entered into Urdu language for need-based purpose, for example حاجت (need), حکم (order), ترازو (scale), دوشیزہ (virgin), چین(ease), تالی (clapping), افلاطون (Plato), کلیسہ(church), teacher, jacket, desk, bench etc(Abrar,et.al,2012).
Reduplication is a process, which is used excessively in Urdu; in the compound nouns or parts of words, which are repeated to add quantity, intensity, or compactness by repeating the root word (Abbi, 1992) e.g. گھاس پھونس (grass informal)دانہ دنکا (grains informal)(Abrar,et.al,2012).
2.5.9. Nounce formation:
According to Bauer (2004), the speaker or author spontaneously , fulfill an immediate need and coined the complex form of word. Though, this word is formed and accepted by the society, still it is called a nounce form. If the speakers, consider already heard word, as novel word, the word loses its status as a nounce word , for example رسسے , رسـوں (cords) from رسی/رسیاں(cord/cords) اولاد غیر (children of some other person) (Abrar,et.al,2012).
Clippings are mixed forms or abbreviation formed from larger words, which has a common function to express familiarity with the denotation of derivatives (Plag, 2003, 121).The longer form is called formal and the shorter term is used in informal situations. Clippings are commonly part of in group talk and slang language.There are two types of clippings ;(a) fore-clipping and (b) back-clipping. Fore and back clippings , usually, in Urdu language, are borrowed from English, e.g., Plane from aero plane, brush from toothbrush (Abrar,et.al,2012).
2.5.11.Abbreviations and Acronyms:
Abbreviations and acronyms are the short form of words or expressions (McCarthy and O’Dell, 2002,p.20). In Modern English and Urdu, new abbreviations and acronyms are formed to save time and communicate in short and brief way, e.g., WAPDA (Water And Power Development Authority) APCA (All Pakistan Clerks Association)(Wikipedia).
Urdu words are joined together with English or words of any other language to form new words,is called hybridization. The process of hybridization is used efficiently in Urdu language . Some of the examples of Urdu Hybridization are as followed: ڈبل روٹی, غنڈاٹیکس.(Abrar,et.al,2012).
New words are formed from complex words by removing a suffix or suffix-like constituent, is called backformation. Suffixation is an opposite process to back-formation. In the beginning , it was taken as a structure of a borrowed word in the language as a misunderstanding. Merchand (1969), has preferred the term back-derivation to back-formation. There is no typical instance of backformation in Urdu, but a few formations resemble backformation, for example, Balochi (بلوچی)(resident of Baluchistan- name of a province in Pakistan) from بلوچستان (Abrar,et.al,2012).
In Urdu, coining new words is different process from other languages .For example, in a situation, when a new word is required and suitable borrowed word is unavailable, and a native word is not present .There is a need to coin a new word, for example سحری (A repast, eaten before daybreak in the Islamic month of Ramadan)(Abrar,et.al,20120).
Morphologically, Blends are defined differently, it is said that words uniting two words(sometime three or more words) into one, removing root word from one or both the source languages, are called blends. (Plag, 2003,122).Mostly, blend words used in the Urdu are borrowed from English for e.g. ,Motel((موٹل ), Brunch(برنچ) etc.
The new word formation without any morphological, phonological, or orthographic root is called word manufacturing (e.g. Kodak). This kind of word-formation is not found in Urdu.
Word built to imitate different sounds, for example: ٹایئں ٹایئں کرنا,( to be talkative) while the real word is copied from the screech of a parrot, is called sound imitation.
Urdu morphology is a complex phenomenon. Regional languages have played an important part in the development of Urdu language and left imperishable prints on it. The advent of the globalization also has made the situation complicated. However, it is a very vast field and the present research encourages the lexicologists to discover further aspects of Urdu morphology.
2.6. The role of languages (Urdu /English) in contact:
Language contact played an important role in the variations and changes occurring in a language at every level of linguistic analysis. Weinreich (1970) explains that when two or more languages are in contact,then mutual influence resultantly becomes important. The result of the contact is referred as “interference phenomena” (Weinreich, 1970). He further
elaborates the interference phenomena involving in instances of deviation from regular pattern of either language, occuring in the speech of bilinguals as a result of their familiarity with more than one language .These deviations may be showed in such domains as the pronunciation, grammar, meaning and lexis”.
Urdu and English have been for the last four centuries, in contact but the continuous contact has given rise to a question related to the impact of English on Urdu language. Language has always been a very complicated and sensitive issue in Pakistan ,triggering many pointed remarks from all sections of society as language practices are strongly connected socially and politically (Heller,2001:p.1).English has been planted in Pakistan ,as in most African and Asian countries, during the colonial rule.Till the independence, use of English language continued as” system maintenance” ,as indigenous, regional languages were not in a position to run the bureaucratic style of government, inherited by British rule (Haq,1983).The first phase of contact begins from 1835,the time of Imperial transplant (Crystal,1997)of English and closes in1947.Urdu(Rao,1954),Englishes borrowed words from other languages and English words were also borrowed in Urdu but it got speed and became common after1835.The borrowing was from both the languages and maximum part of borrowed words was ‘register’, dependent. The grammar of both the languages was preserved. According to Sebba (1997) ,this was the first phase of language contact.
The British government in India concluded to impart education in English on chosen grounds. Urdu borrowed words from English and was spoken by the Indian community. While only highly qualified, native population could code-switch and this phenomenon was different from code-mixing(Kachru,1978).The form of contact increased by establishing the education system with two languages as the medium of education. English at high level and Urdu in schools(Rehman,1999).Resultantly, the borrowing increased from English into other languages and particularly, in Urdu. This is according to Sebba(1997)the second stage of language contact. English, according to Crystal is now an associated, official language in Pakistan(Crystal,1997).Pakistan is a multi-lingual society and more than seventy(70)languages are spoken in Pakistan .
As Bamgbos (1971: 47) has correctly noted, the impact of the local languages is strong on English as a second language because certain “patterns of the local languages- phonological, grammatical and lexical – made to be shifted into English”. While first language has its influence and it may not be responsible for certain deviatins from local Englishes.As in Ghanaian English , it is important to explain many of the innovative deviations (including lexical hybridized forms) found in Ghanaian English (Ngula, 2011).Like Pakistan, the influence of languages in contact with English ,is more obvious and strong in a multilingual setting like Ghana where English (the official language) co-exists with over fifty native languages.. The Ghanaian situation is a clear case of “multiple languages contact” as English has been in contact with almost every native Ghanaian language, though some languages came into contact much earlier than the other languages. Contact linguistics analyses different types of mixture, variation, adaptation, and restructure of languages resulting from interaction between speakers of multi- languages and intercourse of linguistic andouter ecological reasons in making the conclusions. The present study on Hybridization in Urdu and English is undertaken based on the theoretical observations made by the pioneers in the field like Muller (1875), Paul (1886), Johannes Schmidt (1872), and Schuchardt (1884), Sapir (1921), Bloomfield (1933), Thomason and Kaufman (1988), Mufwene (1998) Thurston (1994) and Winford (2002).
2.7.Globalization and World Englishes:
Haq(1983) states the true vision: “Globalization is no longer an option, it is a fact. Developing countries have either to learn to manage it far more skillfully, or simply drown in the global cross currents.Globalization, is referred to the procedure of uniting people as one , world society, called “Global Society” (Albrow,1990).Globalization, may be perceived as plural due to its processes. So, there may be as many concepts regarding the disciplines present in Social Sciences. Economical Internationalization is also referred to Globalization , beholding the spread of economic markets. Global finance and production has generated the Global Economy(Cox,1992).
Globalization is the international unification of people, companies and governments of different nations through exchange of world ideas, products, concepts and other aspects of a culture .it confines geographical borders and creates a united world. With the invent of technologies like steam locomotives, engines, telecommunications and most recently internet and mobile phones, the world has become interdependent in economics and cultural activities. The ideas of Globalization lead demographic variations, advancements in communications and transportation modern technologies, capitalist and a move towards economic freedom, deregulation and privatization.
Globalization, World Englishes and Pakistan:
Globalization has paved path for languages, customs and traditions from all over the world to disperse into each other. While it opens arms , leading to mixing of cultures and debasing cultural diversities. Today, increasing realm of globalization, like in all other countries, is affecting the culture of Pakistan in both positive and negative ways. Media plays an important role in presenting the changes in different cultures and promoting the values of a particular region on an international platform. Pakistani media is also following a more westernized approach. Globalization, has given rise to English language as a lingua franca. It is already the official language of Pakistan and its popularity is due to English and American television channels that propagate their programs across the world. Families are converting into nuclear families rather than joint families.It is suggested that Pakistani culture is now stepping towards individual culture. Gender roles is also changing and women rights hare prominent part of media discussion and it is believed that women in Pakistan today are striving to learn better and accomplish more. Everyday dress code is another striking feature of Globalization in Pakistanis.
The same realm of Globalization also has affected English and there is now a great deal of consensus among world Englishes scholars that English language has undergone complicated processes of “nativisation” and “acculturation” in many colonial and post-colonial contexts,
including, for example, former British colonies in Africa and Asia, which have continued to use English after independence (Kachru, 1986, 1996). In multilingual countries like Ghana, Nigeria, India and Singapore, contact of English for a long time resulted in nativisation and acculturation, “the processes of change that localized varieties of English have undergone by acquiring new linguistic and cultural identities” (Kachru, 1996: 138). These processes led to originate new varieties as GhE, Nigerian English, Indian English and Singaporean English. ( Kachru,1996, 1997) in his extensively, functional framework for the expanding use of English. English is undergoing nativisation and acculturation in the Outer Circle countries. The others on his three concentric circles are the Inner Circle and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle is referred to native-speaking countries like the UK, the US, Canada and Australia, where English is the first language .In Outer Circle, the countries, where English was spread during colonization by members of the Inner Circle,are included. Countries like Ghana, Nigeria, India and Malaysia are in this Circle. In the Outer Circle countries, English is a prestigious language and has been recognized and institutionalized as second language with other functional roles. It undergoes many acculturation and nativisation processes. These Processes will continue for a longer time in outer circle countries. Japan, Thailand, China and Egypt are included in expanding circle countries,where English is still a foreign language. Rasheed (2009)declared that 98% of Pakistani people are learning English to communicate with other Pakistanis and 2% of the people use it to communicate with the native, English speakers .There is still need of a criteria to recognize new Englishes. Platt(1984)has described four basic criteria to understand the English as a new variety in Pakistan. First of all, English must be developed in Education system, taught as a subject and also used as a medium of instruction. Second is to have engaged English as Pidgen or Creol. Third is to use English in Correspondence, Political activities and in Media. Lastly, English must be nativized and localized as other languages .In Pakistan, if this criteria is analyzed for English, it will be clear that English has got the status of Pakistani English. English ,in Pakistan, is a part of Education system and used as Creol and Pidgin as well. While,it also has a prominent part in Media, Politics ,Army, Judiciary and Correspondence and is nativized and localized.Lots of words, idioms and structures are assimilated in Pakistani English from other regional languages. Pakistani English is identified due to certain prominent linguistics features in grammar and word formation, word borrowing and lexical changes(Baumgardner,1993).
Gumperz (1982:66) defines borrowing as a single lexeme or small , frozen , idiomatic expressions taken from a language into another .Many scholars opine about borrowing , for example Hoffmann (1990:101), Holmes (1992:50) and Poplack (1980:584), the borrowed items are mostly selected according to the user’s language or native language. According to Hoffmann (1990:101) this phenomenon is happening universally in all languages as these all are borrowed lexical items taken from other languages .Borrowing was presented by Malmstorm (1973:45) as in these words .Words like men are travelling. Throughout in the history, many words entered in to English after passing through a session of different languages .Words have travelled from country to country(Malmstorm,1973).
Besides this Malmstorm (1973:44) reported that English is an eager borrower of words from other languages. However,it is a fact that Germany has been particularly borrowing ,since 1930’s from English. Smith (1996:135) asserted that French words entered English language in a large number, from the start of the thirteenth century and loan words are mostly from Central French as it was prestigious variety of French language for English-speakers .Many researchers, -e.g. Abu Haidar (1988), Scotton and Okeju (1973) and Kailani, (1994), have the same view that mostly loanwords are very few. This findings in researches depict that majority of loanwords are nouns. Einar Haugen’s “The analysis of Linguistics Borrowing”,(1950)is considered as a main reference in the study of borrowing.Haugene(1950) defines the term of borrowing through linguistic analysis. First of all, the mixed words used from two languages is not random mixing ,but the user is switching from one language to another ,or mixes one word, phrase or a sentence. Secondly, the newly formed language is not a hybrid form or pure form but the fact is that all the languages borrow and loan words from each other. Thirdly this happens without the consent of either languages. Haugen(1950)defines the process of borrowing as an intentional reproduction of models already found in one language borrowed into another. Studies about Borrowing since the time of Whiteny(1881)include a “scale of adaptability”.This scale distributed the nouns on one end and affixes, inflections and sounds on the other end. According to Whiteny (as quoted by Haugen(1950),the more official or structural form remained intact to a level free from the interference of foreign matter.
The study on borrowing of dialects become important ,with the work of Labov’s (1966) research on English of people in New York,According to him,”Sociolinguistics” may be considered as descriptive study of relations in society and language or a study to find solution to linguistic problems,which are consequently the problems in social behavior .Labov discussed the regular patterns between social and stylistic variation found in English of New York City. All groups in society use a greater percentage of /r/ in case the formality increases,
but among the lower middle class, there is no /r/ in casual speech ,it shows a certain increase in /r/ in conscious speech. The speech pattern borrowed from a higher and possibly more prestigious social class shows “hypercorrection”. The results show that hypercorrection is practiced mostly by women as compared to men. The results found in studies of borrowing show same results for hypercorrection and prestige language. Living in the multiple cultures, various languages, and dialects in populated urban areas , the research and conclusions must be carefully done (Mackey and Ornstein 1979)The study of English borrowing in Japanese is very interesting for the linguists. There is no cultural contact between English and Japanese speakers. The cultural contact is at the level of Education system, International Media of English movies and TV. Shows .Hona (1995)remarked that 10% of the words in daily life and 13% of the used vocabulary is from English.This influx in language is a matter of interest as the linguists can observe the rapid change in a language in context to language influence and cultural contact(Muira 1979,Hoffer 1984,1990,2002,Hoffer &Honna 1988).Muira(1979) in her book, looks into the patterns of language ,borrowed from other language. The language patterns ,regarding the borrowing have become even more complicated during the last three decades. Holmes(2000) opines in this respect that the speakers mostly borrow words and adapt according to their first language and they pronounce and use them grammatically as part of their first language .As for as the situation in Pakistan is concerned, English lexemes are deeply rooted in the daily life conversation and a significant part of institutions.
2.9.1.Borrowing and its types:
Sapir(1949) asserts that lexical borrowing is the result of language contact.It mostly happens when one language is more influential and prestigious than the other language ,which is in contact with it.Haugen(1950) opines that borrowing is a procedure through which reproduction is possible.This process of reproduction should form a particular word found in another language.Haugen further argues that borrower is not under any condition to return the loan word nor the donor is asked a permission for a loan word. Mondegar-Nicaro(2007)holds that language system is not involved in borrowing, lexical items ,instead are borrowed to fill the gap in the recipient language and cultures. Ugwuoke(1997)depicts that a recipient language adopts and uses borrowed lexemes ,ideas and expressions of the donor language as its own lexemes. She further explains this as borrowing reflects “copying, changes in patterned symbols, changing and translating.Yule (2001)finds it as a part of lexical change. She elaborates it as taking new items from one language to another language. According to her, borrowing is a morphological process that helps to increase the lexicon of a recipient language.She elaborate it as two types of borrowing ,direct borrowing and indirect borrowing. Witalisz (2011) observes it as “lexical or linguistic borrowing” .According to him, lexical borrowing is needed to depict the concepts that are foreign to the recipient language .Borrowing is called lexical because there may be no lexical items to represent a particular concept. Agbedo(2011) emphasizes that only unusual words are borrowed ,while the function words are not borrowed except in rare cases.Burtz(1949),Haugen(1950),Weinreich(1953),Dutchworth(1977),Duskin(2009),Agbedo(2011),Witalisz(2011),all the linguists distributed the lexical/linguistic borrowing into different categories, such as loan words, foreign words, substitution, loan translation, loan rendering ,loan formation, loan meaning and loan creation etc. Duskin (2009)indorses five of these categories. It is hard to observe the massive borrowing occurred over the centuries by the sociolinguists, who are interested in cultures and languages in contact. The various examples can be seen from history, as of Arabic into Spanish, French into English ,Spanish into Quechua and so on. The use of words borrowed and their function is observed by the sociolinguists.
2.10. Loanwords in languages:
English has borrowed many loanwords . computerized survey of round about 80,000 words in 1970,was held ,when the old Shorter Oxford Dictionary (3rd edition) was published in Ordered Profusion by Thomas Finkenstaedt and Dieter Wolff .Their estimates for the origin of English words were as follows:
The insertion of borrowed lexical items into sentences was smoothly unproblematic. Two subsections of loanwords were proposed by Fantini (1989:147)[quoted in Hoffmann (1990)]; “pure borrowings” (e.g. the loanword used in Arabic ” steering” is the same way pronounced in Arabic as it is in English), and “adjusted borrowing” (for example ,another loanword “aks” from Arabic borrowed in English” axle” has a clipping of the last sound like Arabic). It seems that “the process of adaptation and unification usually takes a little time to get completed” (Hoffmann 1990:102).Hoffmann (1990:102) supposed that borrowed item fulfill a temporary need that may be because of laziness, fatigue or emotional stress which involve the bilingual to forget the correct word . Ikekeonwu (1982:485) encouraged borrowing especially in the areas of modern technological concepts. Kay (1995:75) observed that in Japan, the companies and products easily borrow English names because they are continuing katakana reading. Many other reasons for borrowings were given by Bader (1990:46). He supposed that need, the dearth of need, phonological and semantic similarity can result into borrowing from other languages. He also listed some sociolinguistic reasons like prestige and taboo that may originate loanwords (ibid). Abu Haidar (1988:19) believes that these loanwords may help to fill the lexical gap in Arabic. Also, Hoffmann (1990:102) believes that the reasons of borrowing may not be of negative kind. Kailani (1994) explored the size and the status of loan words in vernacular. He has registered a mass of 500 “loan-forms” in a lexicon with their referents in the donor language. Kailani’s(1994) study is limited to English loanwords in Jordanian local Arabic (p. 41). Moreover his study attempted to show Jordan’s major cultural and linguistic contact with the Western world . The examination of the loanwords revealed that English words are expected to enter into Arabic since the contact and communication with English speaking countries is becoming pivotal as we need technology from the West (p.79). In this regard, the entrance of English words like Bluetooth, IR, missed-call…etc into Arabic, with the expanding use of mobiles proved Kailani’s (1994) claim.
When two languages come into contact, one language borrowed words from another. Lexical borrowings, or loanwords, are by far the most commonly attested language contact phenomenon.Thomas and Kaufman (1988) states that “invariably, in a borrowing situation, the first alien items entered the borrowing language are words,” and, is based on a cross-linguistic survey of lexical borrowings in 41 languages. Haspelmath and Tadmor(2009) states that there is no language as a sample or a single language can avoid loanwords. Loanwords are being studied from different perspectives , linking to different areas of linguistics, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, and semantics, as well as sociolinguistics and historical linguistics. Loanwords are considered the most familiar part of language contact phenomena but also holds a significant position in general linguistics due to the reasons that these make it understandable in grammatical constitution of language and according to the hypotheses of language change and chronological linguistics. According to Rehman(2005),English has become a language of power and status symbol. Takashi(1990) suggested about Japanese that English borrowings are used commonly. The reason is that English conveys a touch of sophistication and modernity about the subject matter.The same way,in Urdu,English loan words are used as a habit and status symbol(Islam,R.A.,2011).Baumgardner(1990)highlighted some popular English forms in Urdu as compounding of half pants, into ’shorts’, conversion of affectee ‘someone who is affected etc. Sapir(1921)argues that the historical facts of cultural relation are dependent on the nature and extent of borrowing. There are no textbooks purely written on loanwords, a few introductory books provide material on loanwords by discussing language contact in detail. Thomason(2001),emphasizes on loanwords and their adaptability in various linguistic structures. Bowden(2005)and Haugen, et al,(2003) provide encyclopedia entries related to the loanword topic. Clyne(1987) and Hoffer(1997) provide an idea of this field from a historical point of view to a handbook of cross-linguistic comparative study of loanwords and provides detailed analyses .Haspelmath(2009) gives an introduction of the adoptability of loanwords. .Matra(2009) analyses the division of lexical borrowings across different lexical categories and the features of structural adaptation. Winford(2003), discusses varied social backgrounds under which different lexical borrowings happen and elaborates the loanword approval as it go through different processes.
2.12.Difference between code-switching and borrowing;
The difference between the terms of code-switching and borrowing is important as the problem of distinguishing borrowings from code switching sometimes become a complex phenomenon . (Gumperz 1982:66). Borrowing often occurs wherever languages come into contact; however, the degree of borrowed words may differ with each borrowed item (Gumperz 1982). For instance, a monolingual Arabic speaker is using the word,” sandwich”, which is phonetically changed in Arabic pronunciation as [san.dwish],without the least awareness of the fact that it is borrowed word from English. As for code-switching, on the other hand, a speaker might use the expression “thank you” fully aware that the expression is of English origin. This way of distinction are distinguishable from the code-switched items in that loanwords are “ordinarily assimilated to the base language , whereas code-switched items tend to occur in the donor language”.
Hybridity is referred to an inter-mixture between two distinctive races and cultures. A hybrid is related to something “mixed”,and is called a “mixture”. Hybridity ,as an applicative term ,has become an effective tool in formation of a racial-mixed discourse.It was upholded at the end of 18th century(Carvalheiro,Jose2010).Hybridity,term is considered for racial purity, responding to the zeitgeist of colonialism, when social hierarchy was not a contention at the summit of Europe. The social conversion ,following the end of Colonial mandates, increasing immigration and economic independence changed the use and comprehension of the term” hybridity”(Young,Robert.1995).Hybridity ,basically ,is linked to the rise of “post-colonial discourse”, and the, “cultural imperialism”.This is called the second phase of hybridity, concentrating on the literature and theory ,studying the impacts of “mixture”,on “identity” and “culture”. The famous and leading theorists of hybridity are Stuart Hall, Gayatri Spivak, Homi Bhabha, Nestor Garcia and Paul Glory, with emerging work on multi-cultural awareness(Hall,Stuart.1992).In the theoretic progress of hybridity, the key issue is the ”location of culture”, wherein the liminality of hybridity presents the model of “colonial anxiety”(Bhabha,Homi.1994).Hybridity is the main proposal of colonial identity, and in a cultural form ,it made the colonial masters unsure of the authority and power. Hybridity, shows the cultures coming closer to each other in a process of repetition and communicate to each other (Bhabha,Homi.1994).
The next stage is cultural impacts of Globalization in utilizing the term Hybridity .For example,according to Kraidy(2005),hybridity, presents “cultural logic in Globalization .It joins together the track of various cultures ,having close affinity with foreign media and businessmen. It forges effective links with commodities and local communities(Kraidy,2005).The term “hybridity “is contested due to the” resisted appropriateness”, of various courses, for example,the youth in Indonesia, following Islam,”synthesized “the trends in global scenario and respect the religious values. They, in this regard, drink non-alcohalic beer,using Quranic apps on iphones and purchasing hilal cosmetics. A conflict occurs across generations ,when youth try clothing clash,to create cultural “hybridity”. The older generation interferes with youth and youth gets inspired to change traditions(Garcia,1990). The matter of mixed languages and linguistic hybridity challenge the tree-model in Linguistics. Israeli, may be taken as an example,which is called (modern Hebrew).It is argued that Hebrew or Israeli is a Semio-European hybrid language and it shows that a linguistic genesis is quite complicated than the linguistic family tree. The revived languages have mostly one parent(Zuckermann,2009).
2.14.Types of Hybridization:
Whinnom,(1971),differentiates between the three types or stages of Hybridization. The “Primary Hybridization”, set equal with “fragmentation”, i.e. the dividing of a species-language into races, such as “dialects”, through innovation procedure. The “secondary hybridization”,is the inter-breeding of distinguish species, which can be considered as an alien language learning and bilingualism. While, the “Tertiary Hybridization”is referred to the common use of pidgin, lingua franca by the speakers ,not sharing a common language, without a biological analogue(Whinnom,1971). McArther(1998),in the context of World Englishes ,referred to the broad range of language contact phenomenon ,encompassed by the term Hybridization. He also includes the procedures of code-switching and code mixing by giving examples of Frenglish, Russialish and Chinglish etc(McArther,1998).
2.15.Hybridization and culture:
Hybridization,in relation to cultural forms, is defined as” the ways in which forms become separated from existing practices and recombined with new forms in new practices”(Rowe and Schelling,1991).Social organizations have structured forms and it is popularly argued that nation-state composition is a function of Globalization and an expression for it, but it is not a contrary process(Roberston,1992;Greenfeld,1992).In the same context, the present stage of Globalization includes the” relative weakening”, of nation-states as economic globalism has weaken the national economy patriotism and declined culturally. It is not a unidirectional process. As it is seen that international migrations develop the demographic globalization and cause a harm to the patriotism and long-distance nationalism. The author gives the examples of Irish and their political affinity, Jews and their close relation with Palestine. While, the migration also shows the affinity of Sikhs in Toronto, Tamils in London ,Tibetans in India and Kurds in Germany(Anderson,1992).
2.16.Language and Hybridization:
Language is a socio-cultural product which develops and changes with the development and modifications in the society. Language hybridization is a main feature of language, ending in an altered or totally a new language. One language influences the other in different ways: by providing a new vocabulary to the other language, by influencing the word formation process a or by changing its syntax significantly. The influence of Arabic on Hindi is an example ,resulted into in Urdu and the impact of Latin and French over English. Language hybridization is a long process of frequent code-mixing. Sometimes, the grammar of one language is applied to the vocabulary of another language. When two or more languages are frequently mixed, consequently a new hybrid variety of language is born. This new variety shares the features of both the languages with an independent grammar and vocabulary that may not be matched with any of the source languages.
2.17.Emergence of the term Hybridization:
The term Hybridization first emerged with Zuckermann’s articles on the topic of Israel (Hebrew as spoken in Israel today).The core of the term hybrid is that the language must have its basic sources , along with a range of secondary contributors (Zuckermann, 2009). Hybridization is needed because it applies to revive or reinvent languages .Pidgin, Creole and Mixed Languages renew natural language that is the result of mindful effort by a bilingual community, often belonging to a specific ethnicity (Zuckermann ,2006) are formed from the soil representing a living, mother tongue.
Braj Kachru has presented an easy approach regarding the process of hybridization.He gave an example of hybrid of Indian English, Kachru (1983: 138) holds that lexical hybridization or a mixed form is based on elements (words) from two or more different languages, whereas some o words are borrowed from the local language. The term ‘hybridized’ applies to fortified languages, because of the application of the Congruence Principle to the restoration effort – “If a feature exists in more than one source languages, it is more favorable to preserve the emerging language” (Zuckermann, 2009).
Hybridization in World Languages:
European vernaculars were in closer contact with one another and with languages spoken outside Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries. Borrowing, mixing and hybridization resulted due to the increased contact, some of the languages were highly conscious of the changes. Mixing resultantly, led to a ‘purist’ reaction, first in the case of Latin and then in the case of vernaculars such as Italian, French, German, Dutch and to little extent , English. Lexical hybridization is one of the very productive lexical features of non native varieties of English, and has been attested and described in other outer circle varieties of English such as Indian English (Kachru, 1983, 2005), Fiji English (Tent, 2001), Pakistani English (Rahman, 1991), and Malaysian English (Thirusanku and Yunus, 2012). For example, two famous hybrids reported by Kachru are Bindi mark(a dot-like mark put on the forehead by Hindi women) and police walla (a policeman). Loan shifts or calques are another example of Englishization, particularly in outer circle, several words are ad-mixed as snacks-wax,tea-wee,movie-vovie etc.in these compounds, the head word is an English word,while the appended word is a nounce part as in Urdu. Numerous examples of internal creation by morphological extention have also been recorded as “buundify”,(to liquefy),
“Brahaminhood”,and ”boxwalla”.in Indian English .Loan words blend through hybridization as an example of Englishization. Many other examples are also quoted in Kannad-English hybridization. For example :livesendung(live broadcast),grungrocer(green grocer),booking-kontor(booking office),popkunst(pop art),gospel sang(gospel singing),dai-sutoraiki(large strike),teburu supichi(table speech),and many more other examples are given.(see Bhattia,1987).
Translations constitutes another different category, for example,” laysensu” ,in Telegu (for license)clearly shows the ancestral word “license” from English. Main domains ,in which extended lexical hybridization has happened are ,army ,art(western),agriculture and administration, advertisement and construction, accessories related to urban life, film and trade. While many languages are passing through this process of lexical hybridization, mainly as Arabic,German,Hausa,Indonesian,Danish,Dutch,Igbo,Hindi,Oriya,Marathi,Malyalam,Persian,Swahili,Swedish,Tamil,Yoruba,Turkish and further many other languages all around the world are lexically hybridized(Kingsley and B.B. Kachru).
According to Zuckermann, in the hybridity, the features of phono-semantic matching and the impact of phonological changes to orthography are less well documented, and so deserve an extended view here. Phono-semantic matching is the technique “whereby a foreignism is reproduced in the target language, using pre-existing native elements that are similar to the foreignism in both meaning and in sound” (Zuckermann, 2004).