Ethnic pluralism affect policy making and implementation

Obi and Nwachukwu, (2008) claimed that “sometimes, funds meant for policies were not approved by the relevant government officials and if approved were not released at all or on time. Funds released at all are most times misappropriated or directed to other less important things. Sometimes funds were embezzled or stolen by those in authority.

Responses to the question used to test our third Hypothesis: Indicate that ethnic pluralism affect policy making and implementation. According to Ikelegbe, (2006). Public policy should promote the interest of the general public, rather than the interest of the particularized, parochial, sectional and primordial groupings. Sometimes , some ethnic groups claimed to be neglected, which can be ascribed to the incremental dispersal of resources to different segments of the population,( groups and institutions) as it favor’s some ethnic groups, not all ethnic groups benefited from it. There are traces of impartiality and in the distribution of resources, this affects formulation and implementation of policy.

A good example is the Niger Delta region, a region so blessed with vast natural resources, made up of different ethnic groups, the Ijaws, (the largest ethnic group) the Itsekiri, Yoroba, Efiks, Ibibios and other small groups. The Niger Delta includes states of Abia, Imo, Delta, Edo, Rivers, Bayelsa, Cross River, Akwa Ibom and Ondo. Nigeria is made up of 36 states. The region produces the resources used in developing the other regions (states), but above all, the regions remained underdeveloped. The region has been threatened with extinction due mainly to very serious ecological damage caused by over fifty years of crude oil exploration and extraction whose resultant effect has posed serious negative impacts on the fertility and life span of inhabitants. Malnutrition is a major problem among children, water related diseases, and waste disposal practices which have caused serious problems in the region. The Niger Delta region claimed to be neglected, marginalized by the Nigerian Government and multinational companies, this singular act from the government has affected the formulation of policies that will not only address developmental problems in the region, but rather resources from the region are used to develop other parts of the country. Again, multinational companies claimed they pay huge grants to the Federal government, and that the role is on government to take responsibility for the upkeep and development of the Niger Delta region. This singular act, prove evidence of impartiality on the part of Federal government. Resources are not evenly distributed — No uniformity in the aspect of development of regions in the state.

Again, most oil companies domicile in the region, neglect the region, by not employing youths in the region. In Yenagoa, Indigenes of Ogboinbiri, an Oil rich community in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area. Protested against, the refusal of Agip Oil Company to employ their youths (Vanguard April 16, 2012).A company operating in the region for 26 years, with over 11 oil wells in the community and currently operating on a gas gathering project. Yet the people of the region have nothing to show for its operation in their land. The company claimed they pay huge grant to the federal government.

The people of Ogoni have been deprived of the benefit from the resources discovered, and derived from their land, rather they suffer hazards such as environmental degradation, imposed on them — still commensurate development had never taken place in Ogoni.

Responses to the questions used to test our forth hypothesis: Show that non-availability of relevant data affects policy making and implementation. “According to Akpan, (2000) inaccurate and untimely data is one of the causes of policy failures in Nigeria”. Irrelevant information is tantamount to policy failure from the first stage.

The implementation problem, arise also from corruption, emergence of unforeseen execution difficulties derived from inadequate analysis, government failure by not providing adequate fund to encourage research for the discovering of new or additional useful information.

The amnesty programme has been directed to disarm, demobilize and re integrate the ex-militants, the chairman of the programme, Hon. Kingsley Kuku, is specifically directed to pursue the objective of the amnesty programme, but failed to realize that the major cause of militancy is as a result of serious ecological damage caused by over fifty years of crude oil exploration and extraction in the region and other consequences which include negative impacts on the fertility and life span of inhabitants in such manner that life expectancy is falling, birth rate of animal babies and plant has increased.

Amnesty as a programme, it is likely to say that, adequate research have not been carried out, and necessary policy which include the generation of relevant information and data to address the root causes of the crises have not been formulated. In this case the amnesty programme has failed to address issues such as developmental projects which also include the provision of industries that absorb ex-militants after their training.

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