Essay: The oil and gas industry

In oil and gas industry today there are a lot of challenges they are facing, especially in drilling department which they have been trying to solve the problems associating with wellbore instability, stability and strengthening in oil and gas well. Considering the years Back and presently in oil and gas industry, wellbore instability have been a great threat to oil and gas industry, which has cost a lot of damages and economic lost to the industry. Wellbore instability is undesirable state of an openhole interim that does not keep up its gage size and shape and/or its basic respectability which can cause wall or well collapse as a result of over pressurization to the formation, lost circulation of drilling fluid, failure of rock due to stresses in the formation also chemical used as additives can as well cause instability in shale formation due to interaction between the shale and the chemical, which lead to swelling up of shale as well lead to instability during drilling, if all this conditions are not properly manage it will cause instability and wellbore disaster. Stability in wellbore is just a favourable condition in oil and gas well drilling which can only be achieved when the problem associated with instability is properly managed. Wellbore strengthening is a process which intends to build the resistance of developments to circulation loss amid boring or well cementing operations or resistance increase in formation to circulation loss during operations .Lost circulation is known as a standout amongst the most noticeable drilling issues because of its regular occurrence and inconveniences. It can as well cause series of problem in oil and gas wellboring operations. Therefore, wellbore strengthening systems as preventive methodologies towards this issue have pulled in consideration in the previous two decades. The rock strengthening increase during drilling operations may be achieved through different technologies described in the past. However, drilling fluid predicated wellbore invigorating is the most promising approach predicated on the field and laboratory observations and studies. This approach pursues the engineered design of drilling fluids or specialized pills in order to reach the desired strengthening level. The main focus has been on the properties of the solid contents of the fluids, as they play a key role in the wellbore strengthening process. This system is additionally called particulate-base wellbore strengthening. Regardless the prodigious attention devoted to investigation of the efficacious parameters in drilling fluid design for rock strengthening purposes, most of the findings are constrained to qualitative analyses and explications and do not provide vigorous implements for engineering practices. The principle of wellbore Strengthening help the driller to understand the mud weight window when there are a sudden losses or reduction of drilling fluid into fractured rock (formation) which lead to catastrophic like blowout and gas kick in wellbore, depleted reservoirs access reserves and reduction of potential casing runs in wellbore . Also understanding the principle of forces that act and occur in wellboring eg.
1. Help to understand the internal and external mud cake strength in wellbore.
2. Elasticity and Plasticity of wellbore formation
3. Rock tensile strength
4. In-situ stresses
5. Pore pressure near wellbore (Poro-elastic)
6. Mud weight window
7. Fracture initial / Fracture gradient in wellbore
8. Stress caging
9. Fracture closure stress
In wellbore strengthening, a progression of field and research facility trials and perceptions prompted depiction of another mechanism for wellbore strengthening called stress caging. Stress caging describes the strengthening mechanism predicated on the postulation that fractures initiate at pre-determined pressure levels. Then, particles in the fluids prop the fractures and thus increase the tangential (hoop) stress around the wellbore predicated on the incremented tangential (hoop) strain, leading to higher fracture gradients around the wellbore.
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Over the years, wellbore strengthening have been a problematic to oil and gas industry, which have cost the industry to lose a lot of money and economic lost in trying to solve the problem associated with wellbore strengthening in drilling of oil and gas well in a formation that is not stabile to withstand pressure . Also many theories, methods and models have been introduced in investigating the problem/solving of wellbore strengthening such as:
1. Rock Geomechanics Theories
2. Casing drilling
3. ABAQUS model
4. Putting granular material
5. Using high fluid loss slurry
6. Chemical sealant
7. Heating the wellbore
8. Smear effect
9. Rigid-plug forming treatment
10 Ultra-low fluid loss muds
With these methods, principles and models in introduced in this project, wellbore strengthening can be achieved if they are properly practice in oil and gas drilling field. Also loss circulation, wellbore instability, differential sticking , kick and blowout , number of excessive casing running and cutting removal problems will be prevented by wellbore strengthening technics.
1.3 SCOPE OF WORK
In this study, it will focus on wellbore strengthening in oil and gas well formation during/after drilling and the following area will be explore
1. Wellbore strengthening
2. Reasons /Needs for wellbore strengthening
3. Methods of wellbore strengthening
4. Measures for wellbore strengthening
5. Mud window
6. Theoretical equations / models in wellbore strengthening etc.
After this project, will be able to understand the physics behind the wellbore strengthening as well knowing the process of handling the various factors that leads to wellbore failure in formation during or after drilling also solving the problem as well.

Source: Essay UK - http://muslimschristians.com/essays/miscellaneous/essay-the-oil-and-gas-industry/


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