Essay: The Japanese earthquake and tsunami disaster

The earthquake damaged hundreds of thousands of structures and triggered a tsunami that devastated the eastern coast of Japan. The tsunami, in turn, led to level 7 meltdowns in three nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, leading to the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of residents. Natural disasters happen and some, even with preparatory warning can be devastating. All that people and government can do is maximize preparedness to manage and assume the risks of natural disasters. (Goldberg, 2013) When a data threat has been confirmed then the effect and size of the threat must be evaluated to determine which response is necessary. In making a response certain factors must be included such as the individuals, stake holders, and the type of data that has been breached. These include structural and social preparedness and these two are always part of the main concerns in relation to risk management of natural disasters. When Hurricane Katrina hit on 23 August 2005, it hit New Orleans with such force and the city, although leveed, easily filled up like a bath tub – much of the city, almost all low-lying was inundated by rain and high winds that flooding soon happened, trapping people in their homes making rescue difficult. Those who managed to seek shelter in government-prepared evacuation centers soon found themselves homeless as, even as the storm dissipated, New Orleans remained flooded and the life that they knew was lost to many.
Herded to welfare housing hastily set up by the government, most looked forward and waited for a successful rebuilding of their city so that they can live their lives out, as before once again. meanwhile, looting went on in the abandoned and flooded parts of the city while the US Corps of engineers scrambled to fix the levees, all this happening under the glare of the media side by side with grim images from New Orleans and stories of tragedy and survival. Blame in the handling of the mishap and the red tape that prevented relief came under heavy scrutiny and FEMA’s methods and the way local, state and Federal governments handled the crisis were under fire. So was there really an implementation problem? If so, what were they?
#2 question (www.tnema.org)The emergency plan by the State Emergency Operations Center was developed because of the growing concerns of with keeping a safety, assessing roads and conditions, monitoring the weather reports and minimizing the effect of an emergency events in the state of Tennessee (www.tnema.org). As part of a bigger comprehensive plan linked to vary other specialist situations. Its importance lies in the fact that in the last decade natural disasters in American has increased due to varied factors. (www.tnema.org)This plan focuses on a prevention associated with natural disasters, but, in order to prepare concerned staff, agencies and offices for their role and appropriate action should an emergency arise the state of Tennessee has the National Guard units available(www.tnema.org). (www.tnema.org) Emergency Support Function are structured by elements and basic contained annexes structure. (www.tnema.org) An evacuation, movement & logistics plans of evacuating from varied points of the area in case of said situation arising must already be in place (www.tnema.org). A group of individual will be in charge of such a situation putting in plan movement in and out of particular open spaces of a number of individuals to large groups. The emergency plan must be laid out plan it should be available any given time in case of emergency arising. (www.tnema.org) In terms of logistics and movement of equipment as well as responders on site, a similar plan involving movement to and from varied points. (www.tnema.org) Data access will be override of security protocols for said information access must be put in place.
Body
Vulnerability to the effects of a disaster arises from a combination of factors, including physical proximity to a threat (e.g., living in a floodplain), the characteristics of the home (including construction and ownership), lack of a political voice, financial constraints, and choices made by an individual. It is widely accepted that high-risk groups vulnerable to a disaster include those with lower incomes, the very young and the elderly, the disabled, women living alone, and female-headed households. elevation of their homes (Race and class are certainly factors that help explain the social vulnerability in the South, while ethnicity plays an additional role in many cities. When the middle classes (both White and Black) abandon a city, the disparities between the very rich and the very poor expand. Add to this an increasing elderly population, the homeless, transients (including tourists), and other special needs populations, and the prospects for evacuating a city during times of emergencies becomes a daunting challenge for most American cities. Employment opportunities were limited for inner city residents as jobs moved outward from the central city to suburban locations, or overseas as the process of globalization reduced even further the number of low skilled jobs
The proliferation of firsthand accounts of victims and witnesses in text (newspaper articles, published stories, etc.) and in oral accounts via the media and the continuing investigation of independent agencies, academic groups as well as the government itself show a story of human tragedy that depict the initial response of the government as weak and mostly ineffective. FEMA’s initial response and the militarization of the relief & rescue effort created a picture of a government losing its grip on the effect of the disaster, coordination missing. The questions “Who is in-charge?” and “What’s being done?” volleyed in the minds of Americans across the nation, gripped by the images and stories of disaster. Many trooped to New Orleans to ‘help’ but found no one to talk or work with about a ‘coordinated effort’ to get the victims out of the Dome and give them initial Housing and Food relief. The unprecedented cataclysm that became of New Orleans when Katrina hit resulted to the first evacuation of a major US city (ordered by Mayor Ray Nagin); those who cannot escape the city trooped to refugee centers like the Superdome who soon —- together with the compounded problems of rescue, floods and destruction became an unmanageable sea of human trauma. Outside reports of looting, rape, murder and theft were lodged, but in the first week the police were undermanned and powerless resulting to the militarization of the management of the city. To process the massive number of refugees required an effort unprecedented in U.S. history.
Faced with a city in ruins, military management was seen as necessary but this had a negative social impact in terms of management of relief & rescue operations as well as the lack of coordinated efforts Americans expect from their government. Essential facilities such as hospitals, transportation hubs, and communication systems were severely damaged by the earthquake and this hampered the delivery of humanitarian aid. Due to the widespread damage to infrastructure and overwhelming number of casualties, the Haitian government was unable to respond in a timely manner. The country’s morgues were overloaded and people had to be buried in mass graves. There was an outpouring of refugees to the neighboring Dominican Republic, which accepted refugees temporarily but itself did not have sufficient supplies of food or medicine.
Although there was a significant amount of international aid from governments, including $48 billion from the United States, as well as international aid agencies such as the Red Cross and Catholic Relief Services, there were problems with recovery efforts, in part due to health problems such as a cholera epidemic, and problems inherent in Haiti such as complexity of land tenure laws, government inaction, and indecision among donor countries. It was also noted that there was an inadequate response to needs on the ground, with millions spent on advertisements promoting hand washing in areas without water or soap available.
Three strategies to prepare for future disasters include community preparedness, emergency public information and warning, and information sharing. Community preparedness involves identifying potential health risks, building community partnerships and engaging public health, medical, and social organizations, and coordinating training in preparedness efforts.

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