Dissertation: Study on career counseling

Chapter 1: Introduction

Career counseling is an integral part of life which the numbers of courses are growing day by day and route choices is becoming a very difficult and challenging for the students and therefore there is a need for a counselor to guide them through. The main purpose of career counseling is to create ‘conscientization’, the process of developing a critical awareness of one’s social reality through reflection and action, rather then only to keep oneself aware of all happenings occurring in his surroundings. Action is fundamental because it is the process of converting thoughts and ideas into practice. In career counseling the counselor set a match between skills of job seeker and skills needed by the employer to secure the work of job seeker. The counselors take their time to conclude the demands and needs of employers and job seekers respectively and then they set a match of demand-need. Counselors required many skills to use during this process such as construction of required data, obliteration of received data and reconstruction of consumed data as a part of career counseling process. Counselor set the goals for the job seekers by developing many skills in them and teaching them the tactics to grab the attention of the employer to them. First step for it, taken by the counselor, is to develop the skill of professional writing of a curriculum vita. Curriculum vita consists of study courses as well as the interests of job seekers. If hey have the perfect match then it have great worth among employers but on the contrary the mismatch profession and study course is ever rejected in the professional life. (Kayano, J. 2009)

Most students today are very cautious with their likes and dislikes regarding the careers they would like to choose for themselves. However on arrival at the crossroads and has to make the decision for themselves tend to deviate or confused. At that stage they need the proper guidance and leading to be successful in the future life. This guidance can be provided by parents, teachers, peers, family or even by the professional study career counselors. They guide the students to adopt the right path for future success.
Career can be defined as the combination and sequences of life roles, the settings in which life roles unfold and the planned and unplanned events that occur in people lives (Rebecca Watson-Boone 2007).

Professional career development is increasingly seen as the development and interaction of the functions, settings, and events throughout the lifespan. The focus of the general career guidance is on the issues such as career exploration, career change, personal career development and other career related issues.

In 1908, January 1, the term was introduced vocational counseling to guide students to make the transition from school to work. There is no part of life in which no guidance is required. Parson uses the terms “working life”, “scientific choice of occupation”, “building a successful career and” building a career. “He used the word vocation, professional and occupation synonyms. Educational spectrum sang with countless courses in every field imaginable mainly oriented work.

The occupation of a person, that which offers him opportunity for progress and satisfaction in his work is termed as the life career of person. (Brewer)
Vocational guidance is the process of assisting the individuals to chose an occupation, prepare for it and progress in it. (National Vocational Guidance Association in 1921 and revised in 1924, 1930 and 1937)

Occupation by Roe to mean whatever an adult spends most of his time doing that may be what he does to earn a or it may not. It may be hobby or it may refer to duties of one sort or another, paid or unpaid. Being a housewife in this sense is an occupation while being a father is not an occupation as the focal part of his time is centered on his activities.

The sequence of occupation, job and positions in the life of individual can be termed as career. (Super, 1961; p: 11)

Career concept should be broader to include leisure. (McDaniel, 1965)

He expressed a formula to show the relationship between career, work and leisure as follows:
Career = Work + Leisure

Career development is the total constellation of psychological, sociological, educational, physical, economical and choice factors that combines to shape the career of any given individual. (National Vocational Guidance Association, 1921)

Choosing right course for the children is a prodigious task for parents. Recent past hundreds of new courses with different combinations have been introduced, new avenues like fashion, Bio informatics, Hospital Management, Event Management, Journalism and mass communication are more in demand. Courses like counseling, teaching will be in fore front for self employment. The common questions that bother the parents of present generation whose children have passed the secondary school examination:

1. What next?
2. Who is the right person to guide?
3. Which is the accurate stream for my child?
4. Which of the college does provide the quality career?
5. How to identify child’s caliber?

The economic structure of the world is changing rapidly and new courses are created every day. Revolution in information technology has opened up opportunities in Medical, Computing, Engineering and Telecommunications, etc. new vision as Advertising, Fashion Technology, Hotel and Travel and Tourism, increased self-employment. Advanced topics in psychology, bioinformatics, and entertainment are the up coming avenues. Therefore, choosing the right path that suits their ability and fitness is a meticulous task and proper planning.

On the road to economic recovery, education has become a central element of the growth strategies of countries to be effective in the long term, improvements in education should enable all students to access education quality without inequality, to remain in the system, at least until the end of upper secondary education, and to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary for the effective integration of labor markets and social. Access, equity and quality of education are very important considerations, while the analysis of the effectiveness of an educational system. For each of these important parameters, there are a number of indicators that can determine the level of access, equity and quality.
Education is a powerful instrument of economic and political transformation concomitant world events, technology and democratic. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the quality of education at different levels of education. Quality is one of the most important aspects of an educational system. There are probably many different ideas about quality, as there are schools. Quality of creating an environment where teachers, parents, government officials, community representatives and business leaders working together to provide students with the resources to meet current and future academic, business and the changes strengthening the quality of education has become a global agenda at all levels of education and even at the primary level. The quality of basic education is important not only for the preparation of those subsequent educational levels but to provide the basic life skills necessary. Quality education also ensures greater equality of access and that is mainly due to the forums and organizations have committed declarations improvements in the quality of education. Vocational training and preparing the workforce is an essential function of the professional school counselor.

However, as the workplace continues to change, the school counseling programs in middle and high schools are often challenged to keep pace with technological advances and changes in the labor market (Feller, 2003).

In our country Pakistan the practices of career counseling are facing the real hard time as there is low rate of counseling for students. As a result the students who pass their higher education examination in fly colors are unable to find a single job. The major reason standing behind it seems like to be the mismatch between their skills and demands of the employers. Our students are lagging behind from the students of other countries just due the reason that they have no polished skills. Their all progress and success is only their own there is no participation of any other in it.

Parental Effect on Career

Parents are usually the first and basic institution for the children. Whenever children seek guidance they prefer their parents to be their guide either in any situation. The crucial truth is that the parents themselves are unfamiliar to the skills of their children. They usually like to impose their own interests and professions to their children, or sometimes the profession which is highly demanding in society. Parents have a vast effect on the future career planning and counseling of their children. Through the study it is very clear that 87 percent students admit that proper planning of their career is totally the responsibility of their parents. The success and failure in the future depends upon the right decision and planning of their parents that it is their responsibility to do right with it.

Peers’ Effect on Career

Peers are the same standard fellow beings of one. Mostly during the study life, students like to be inspired with their peers, as cousin, friend or any other relation. In this growing age of urbanization the sense of competition is taking place at a vast level between peer fellows. Peers have the effect in the career preference. As such through this study it is clear that 40 percent of students agree with the condition that they have influence of their peer fellows while choosing their career field. This shows that 60 percent of our students are choosing their career field regardless of their peer fellows’ career choices. Hence, not completely but to some extent the career choices of students are influenced by their peers.

Teachers’ Effect on Career

Teacher is the role model for the students. Mostly students like to adopt the study course as of their teachers, either they have any interest in it or not. After parents, a teacher plays a vital role in the career building and future success of students. Their guidance and discussion can motivate students to achieve any goal. So for that teachers have the foremost responsibility to instruct their students and keep them on the right track of their future which leads them to the capacity building. Through this study we have concluded that only 20 percent students thought that only their teacher are responsible for their career planning and counseling. This shows that nearly 80 percent of students rely on the other resources for their career planning and career building.

Influence of Childhood Aspiration on Career

In this urbanized era, students have created their own fantasy world. They want to get all the things which they think to be best for them. Mostly children idealize their parent’s life to be adopted with. Usually boys want to be such like their father, also wants to adopt similar profession, social status, living status, etc. and in the same way mostly girls prefer to live the lives of their mother. But sometimes any other relation or person influence students in their childhood. They assume to have the same situations and circumstances for them in future. It also leads students’ towards a career planning that how they can get the required and desired career. 80 percent students agree with the situation that childhood aspiration has an influence on career planning and occupation

Process of Professional Career Counseling

1.1 Statement of the Problem

The career counseling practices at early stages of education can be a great source of motivation and high achievement for the students regarding their educational performance and future aims. But unfortunately, in our educational institutions there are no proper career counseling centers and guidelines. Ultimately the students at Layyah are lagging behind from the students of other cities where the educational institutions have proper career counseling centers. So, now the basic problem to be addressed is the evaluation of such practices at Layyah.

1.2 Significance of Study

Career Counseling is too important for the development of our nation into a great nation. In past few years the concept of career counseling has been emerged in some parts of our country as an important fact. But still this phenomenon has not become so popular in most of the institutions and colleges. Our educational system is lagging behind as for the standards of career counseling. Students depend upon their parents and teachers to select their career field. They do not have any awareness about their choices that match to their skills.

In Pakistan mostly parents choose the career field for their children. They are usually unaware of the latent skills and hidden talents of their children. They impose the own choices for their satisfaction regardless to the choices and likes of their children. Mostly the career preferences of parents are influenced by the reaction of society. For the sake of nobility and gratification they choose the high demand occupations and professions for their children.

Individual careers will always be a delicate matter where people must carefully plan where they envision themselves or how they see themselves now and after some years from now. Being exposed to other potential lines of work, people who are still at the prime of their time can afford to make a shift in career but with dire consequences such as deprivation of position in companies to where they have served for some time. While career growth may not eventually occur, solicited advice from the people who have been there or know how to evaluate the course of careers many be a big help.
Careers cannot be taken for granted. They are the bread and butter that make every person unique. There are some who find themselves in the wrong jobs mainly because it is not really their cup of tea. On the other hand, there are people who are already in the right profession but are unable to grow for the reason that they do not give due value to which they can break out of their shell and gain the expected growth and due recognition that they truly deserve.

In short, people just have to do some deep soul searching to be able to discover the true essence on whether to pursue the profession to which they should be, or simply hang on and improve their current stature until the right time comes in the same field.
Career planning is indeed for the better future of students. Their must be proper guidance to them in choosing their career profession. The guides must observe the students abilities rather then subject progress. Also this study attempts to find the three most popular professions which students has been choose during the 2012-13 and to find the scope of that professions at that time.

1.3 Hypothesis

Hypotheses are the assumptions on which the study is based upon. On the basis of these hypotheses the study is approved or rejected. Hypotheses made before this research study are as follows:

Hypothesis 1 : The demographic factors have association with career planning
Null H1 : There is no association between demographic factors and career planning

Hypothesis 2 : Career Counseling is related to parents of students directly
Null H2 : Career counseling has no relation to parents either direct or indirect

Hypothesis 3 : Teachers are only responsible of career counseling of students
Null H3 : Teachers are not responsible for career counseling of students

Hypothesis 4 : Students plan their career at early stages of their study in District Layyah
Null H4 : Students does not plan their career at early stages of their study as there is no proper guidance provided to them

1.4 Limitation of Study

While the size of the study was large enough to conclude reasonable assumptions, the sample data was obtained from one senior class in one college in a particular geographic location and may not have been indicative of the larger population. Validity of the survey has relied on the students’ genuine and thoughtful response.

1.5 Objectives of Study

This study will address the following objectives:

1. To find the major obstacle in the way of career planning and counseling

2. To estimate the ratio of career planning and counseling of students at early stages, at college level

3. To find that in actual whose responsibility is to plan ones career

4. To find the ratio of career counseling practices at college at district Layyah

Chapter 2
Review of Literature

2. Review of Literature

This chapter includes the review of previous researches or studies conducted for the solution of problems regarding Career Counseling. Many studies had been conducted and still are going on for the solution of this problem. These studies show the rapidly changing views and thoughts of people across the great time period. In the following the literature is studied which may directly or indirectly bearing to study at hand.

David C. and Douglas R. (2013) said that the field of career counseling combines the basic counseling skills, prevention, assessment, intervention and diagnostic skills to work with client (students). They found that the higher the working experience of counselor, the higher the success chances for students or clients. They said that for making a student successful in choosing the correct career for him, the counselor must work for a long time. Short assessments cannot lead to the successful future career. It may cause failure if less assessment and calculations are performed before reaching to any decision.

Ghosh R. (2012) has conducted a study on ‘Mentors Providing Challenge and Support, Integrating Concepts from Teacher Mentoring in Education and Organizational Mentoring in Business’. He discussed and critiques the literature on mentoring functions and roles in education and business to inform the use of mentoring as a developmental tool in both fields. Specifically, in an effort to expand the current notions of the different mentor roles, this article synthesizes studies exploring teacher mentoring in schools and organizational mentoring in business settings to identify the varied ways in which mentors provide challenge and support to prot??g??s. As the fields of education and business explore mentoring from different lenses, an integrative perspective as offered by this article is required to allow both fields learn from each other and to make mentoring research more inclusive of the diverse perspectives originating from multiple disciplines.

Maxim V. And Russ V (2012) argues for the importance of including analyses of emotional and unconscious processes in the study of institutional work. They developed a framework that integrates emotions and their connection to domination and offered a typology of interactions between the emotional and cognitive antecedents of institutional maintenance, disruption, and creation. They concluded by discussing the implications of paying closer attention to emotions for future institutional research, including questions regarding profession versus change, intentionality and rationality.

David E. (2011) has conducted a research on ‘Linking Work’Family Conflict to Career Commitment, The Moderating Effects of Gender and Mentoring among Nigerian Civil Servants’. He has led his little focus to the linkage between work’family conflict and career commitment. Likewise, although, theoretical arguments about the moderator effects of mentoring on the relationship between work’family conflict and career attitudes have been made in the literature, no research has investigated this assumption. This study examines the relationship between work-to-family conflict and career commitment and tested the moderating effects of gender and mentoring support in the relationship. Data were obtained from 286 employees in government establishments located in Abuja, Nigeria using a questionnaire. Results indicate that work’family conflict and career commitment have a significant negative relationship. Mentoring influenced the strength of the relationship. The negative relationship became very weak and non significant for employees with high levels of mentoring support, whereas it was significantly stronger for employees with low levels of mentoring support. Contrary to hypothesis, gender was not a moderator. Practical implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

Yongo M. ‘ (2011) has conducted a research on the influence of factors on the career choices of girls in secondary school. He stated the problem as to unearth the girls into making informed choices on career. The objectives of study were to find the attitude of girls towards new and traditional career choices, influence of role modeling and career counseling on career choices. He adopted the descriptive study targeting 291 girls as respondents of secondary school. He concluded that many female career choices are influenced by their attitude and perception regarding professions and careers. Curriculum applied is totally gender biased. There is kept great distinction between the career and curriculum for males and females. He proposed that this phenomenon need revamping career guidance programs in secondary schools. There is need to educate counselors about the related gender issues in career choices.
Holland J. (2010), found in his study that individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work followed by subsequent identification with specific occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personal orientation. Modal personal orientation is a developmental process established through heredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in a corresponding occupational environment. If, however the orientation is one of indecision, the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes.

Barry B and Mary K. (2008) proposed a Goodness of Fit model, which outlines the basic elements of the mentor’prot??g?? match, viewing the relationship as a social exchange based on the fit among mentor and prot??g?? preferences, endowments, and the content of knowledge transmitted. After presenting the model, they provide a few illustrative research questions that flow from the basic logic and terms of the model. They conclude with suggestions for future research, including possibilities of the use of the model in experimental and quasi experimental research.

Garcez (2007), had conducted a study in which he found that the increasing number of career development activities, construct a higher self esteem in students. He said that it is more important in career counseling that students should be satisfied and concerned rather then the parents. This motivates students, having deeper desire to achieve their goals and to be successful in their education. She gave a plan for teaching parents and teachers that how to teach young students to set their goals and also to accomplish them. It shows that all the factors effect career counseling and planning. She said that students must be given the opportunity to identify and explore their desired goals and means to achieve them. Ultimately, they will further their education and have a better chance of succeeding in the ‘do or die’ world in which we live.

Rebecca B. and Charles P. (2006) have said in their article that the aim of career counseling is to help students to solve their problems in vocational aspects of life. They relate their work to the parson’s work of vocational guidance. According to him the best way to solve the vocational problems is to have rational reasoning approach between the demand and the self related traits of a person. They said that the career problem solving calls upon to be open minded and creative in generating more efficient and useful helping approach to help students in effective manner.

Howard and Ill (2004) in their study stressed out that whenever students are in their high school experience, they are the center of learning. In a traditional high school, the center of the system is the content or subject, not student learning. They present a system to promote the shift from traditional content or subject ‘centered high schools to student-centered high schools which is called as Collaborative Career Pathways ‘ a system of organizing the student learning interests and aptitudes around career paths. It provides a structure for students to reference their learning and comment each year of their high school experience. It allows students to plan and practice their skills while creating a smooth and successful transition to a post-secondary option.

Flannery, et al. (2003) implemented the Peace Builders curriculum, which focuses on reducing aggressive behavior and increasing social competence with students grades K-5. They found increases in unimaginative behavior and decreases in teacher-reported aggressive behavior, with greater impact for those who were initially lower in skills at the beginning of the study. The Warning Signs curriculum did not show significant differences in experimental vs. control groups in educating urban high school students about potential violence in themselves and others.

Deml J. (2001) discussed in his study the factors that enrich students’ potential for career success. Work internships and work experience provide students the chance to explore while also providing valuable experience along the way. He stated that students need to learn how to sell themselves, a valuable asset to getting in the door. Maturity may be the result of these types of career experiences, which should be included in a plan to insure career choice success. Mostly the past studies were focused on the concern and investigation of career fields by the students. The students do not get the first opportunity available to them, but they must investigate for it. The student must not have been satisfied with the easiest opportunity that comes along. In fact, the constant career exploration could be adopted as a lifelong strategy throughout one’s life.
Carty, et al. (2000) had conducted a longitudinal study of peer counseling and the effects on adolescent development. It continued for 4 years. Their findings indicated that students who received peers counseling services scored significantly higher on coping and social skills scales. Peer fellows can guide the students properly as they are facing the same situation and can be a better guide for students. And his findings showed that such students have a higher ratio of being successful in the future rather than those who are receiving counseling from other sources or having no guidance in this regard.

Daniel B. and Thomas W. (1994) had studied the topic ‘Role of Prot??g?? Personality in Receipt of Mentoring and Career Success’. They used structural equation modeling to investigate relationships among prot??g??s personality characteristics, initiation of mentoring, mentoring received, and career success for 147 managers and professionals. They found that Prot??g??s influenced the amounts of mentoring they received by initiating relationships with mentors. Internal locus of control, high self monitoring, and high emotional stability enhanced initiation, which mediated the relationships between personality characteristics and mentoring received. The latter was related to career attainment and perceived career success, and career attainment influenced perceived success. Finally, prot??g?? gender was not related to initiation or mentoring received.

St. Clair (1989) conducted a qualitative study on the school counseling outcome research at the middle school level. The interventions he found were relaxation training, group counseling, and career programs. The outcomes that were measured included academic achievement, behaviors, self-concept and attitudes. The results of this study indicated that

(1) A short academic skills workshop can increase middle school students’ grades,

(2) A short non-traditional career workshop can alter middle school students’ occupational stereotypes, and

(3) A four-month long human relations training for middle school students can reduce referrals for disciplinary problems.

Elmer (1989) has said that career planning is life goal-setting. Without such a plan, it is like making a journey to an unfamiliar destination without a map. He proposed the concept of Career Counselor that will help the students in choosing their appropriate course from planning a career, steps in planning career, goal-setting and self-understanding. Also, it reveals that guidance and counseling is intervention of underemployment individuals and career preparedness must be initiated.

Wilson (1986) focused on counselor interventions with low achieving students and their parents to determine whether the school counseling interventions are effective in boosting academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA). In conclusion he has suggested that counseling interventions can have positive effects on academic achievement.

Kathy E. and Lynn A. (1985) had conducted a study on ‘Mentoring Alternatives: The Role of Peer Relationships in Career Development’. They found that there is a little effect of mentoring on career choices. I was a biographical interview study of 25 relationship pairs which indicated that relationships with peers offer important alternatives to those with conventionally defined mentors. This study identifies types of peer relationships, highlights various enhancing functions these relationships provide and showed the unique manner in which these relationships can support psychosocial and career development at every career stage.

David M. And Carol M. (1983) has studied the topic ‘Mentorship: A Career Training and Development Tool’. This article based on studies on mentorship and presents an initial framework for research on mentor-prot??g?? relationships for both men and women. Critical dimensions of this framework include the context within which a mentor-prot??g?? relationship exists, the gender of these role partners, the characteristics each partner seeks in the other, the stages of the relationship, and the positive and negative outcomes accruing to the mentor, to the prot??g??, and to their organization.
Wailer (1977, p. 72) stated that there are ‘coherent systems of thought and feelings manifested by corresponding patterns of behavior’. He found three ego states that individual exhibit.

‘ The first derives from parental figures or figures of authority. It is called the ‘Parent’ ego

‘ The second state appraises the milieu dispassionately and then calculates potential and probabilities on the basis of experience the ‘Adult’ ego.

‘ Third, each individual carries within a little boy or girl who feels, acts, talks and responds just the way he or she did when a child of a certain age. This ego state is called the ‘child.’

Individuals always operate in one of the three ego states during any time of the day. People need all three in order to operate as a complete human being. The important key to effective and autonomous operation is becoming aware of all the ego states, knowing which one an individual is operating under at any given moment, and consciously switching to the ego state that will serve the individual most effectively in specific situations. Students must realize that there are many voices influencing behavior. He described it, as ‘the human condition.’ He said that mentors or the counselors must have the knowledge about the stage of students’ ego so that he may lead them to the proper path to attain their future goals.

2.1 Relevance to Present Study

The studied provide an ample evidence of career planning. It shows that the planning of a student’s career is most important of his personality development. Also the collaborated effort of school administration, teachers, family and peer and mostly the career guide should be made in crystallizing the career decision of students according to their interest and abilities.
Theoretical Framework

Super (1957) identified six dimensions that he thought were relevant and appropriate for adolescents:

1. Orientation to Vocational Choice, an attitudinal dimension determining whether the individual is concerned with the eventual vocational choice to be made

2. Information and planning

3. Consistency of Vocational Preferences

4. Crystallization of Traits, individual progress toward forming a self-concept

5. Vocational Independence

6. Wisdom of Vocational Preferences (dimension concerned with individuals ability to make realistic preferences consistent with personal tasks.)

This theory is found to be appropriate because of its stressfulness in terms of developing a career plan that will guide the individual in choosing a career in college. Also, Super’s six-dimension is appropriate for adolescent is truly applicable because senior high school students are fall under this category.

Conceptualization and Definitions of important terms:

Career: 1) a field for or pursuit of consecutive progressive performance especially in public, professional or business
life.

2) Career describes an individual journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. A third way in which the term is used to describe a professional career or a job that usually involves special training or formal education, describe and is considered to be working life as a person.

3) The progress and actions taken by a person over a lifetime, particularly those occupations related to that person. A career often composed of the effort; tracks saved and work over a long period of time, then only one position.

The term career is used by the researcher as the evolution or achievements which students can conquer in the practical lives.

Career planning: 1) Structured exercise undertaken for its objectives, marketable skills, strengths and weaknesses, etc. to identify, as a part of one’s career management.
2) Career planning consists of activities and actions that one takes to achieve his individual career goals. Career planning is the on going process where one:
‘ Explore his interests and abilities;
‘ Prepare a Strategic plan of his career goals, and
‘ Make his future work success by designing learning and action plans to help him to achieve his goals.
3) Career planning is a lifelong process, which includes choosing an occupation, getting a job, growing in our job, possibly changing careers, and eventually retiring. This may happen once in our lifetimes, but it is more likely to happen several times as we first define and then redefine ourselves and our goals.
In this research the researcher has used this expression as the scheduling of one’s life progress prior to inflowing the professional life and ahead of facing its ups and downs.

Career Counseling: 1) something that provides direction or advice regarding a decision or course of action

2) Career counseling is a process of helping people in making wise career decisions that set them on a particular career pathway for life is increasingly inappropriate.

3) Career Counseling is defined as the process of assisting individuals in the development of a life-career, with the emphasis on the identification of the worker role and the role which cooperates with life conditions.

The researcher has used this expression as the process of advising and helping one for planning and managing his career or future progress with better opportunities and to evolve as the part of that career by occupying the correct study-course.

Capacity Building: 1) Planned development of (or increase in) knowledge, output rate, management, skills, and other capabilities of an organization through acquisition, incentives, technology, and/or training.

2) Capacity and capability building is defined as the empowerment which encompasses the ability, will and skills to initiate, plan, manage, undertake, organize, budget, monitor/supervise and evaluate project activities. Thus capacity and capability building are related to the organizational and functional levels as well as to individuals, groups and institutions

3) The development of knowledge skills and attitudes in individuals or groups of people relevant in design development and maintenance of institutional and operational infrastructures and processes that are locally meaningful.

In this study the term capacity building is used to define the process of developing students’ ability to match their skills to the requirements of work place.

Occupation: 1) An activity engaged in especially as a means of passing time; an avocation.

2) An activity that serves as one’s regular source of livelihood; a vocation.

3) A person’s regular work or profession; job or principal activity

Demographic Factors: Factors related to demography persons such as sex, parental occupation, age, size of income, parental education or sibling’s positions, etc are called demographic factors.

Dependent Variables

Career Counseling / Career planning
‘ Capacity building
‘ Future Goals
‘ Occupation
‘ Study Course

Independent Variables

Societal Factors
‘ Social demand
‘ Reaction of society towards professions (Social Influence)

Other factors
‘ Family
‘ Parents
‘ Peer or friends
‘ Childhood Aspirations
‘ Skills
‘ Obstacles
‘ Institution
‘ Teachers

Chapter 3
Research Methodology

3. Research Methodology

This chapter highlights the procedure while conducting this study. It is understood that scientific validity of a research is based o the effectiveness of thee methodology.

By methodology we mean the philosophy of the research process. This includes the assumptions and values that serve as a rational for research and the standards or criteria the researcher uses for interpreting data and reaching conclusion. (Bailey, 1978)

3.1. Research Design

The researcher has used descriptive survey method, a quantitative research design to assess the socio-demographic characteristics and anticipated problems that affect the choices of students of senior high schools of district Layyah of the session 2011-13.

3.2. Population

Any set of individual or object having a common observable characteristics in research constitute a population or universe. (Dixon & Marry, 1975)

This study has been conducted in District Layyah because no research of this type conducted ever before there.

3.3. Target Population or Sample

Researcher selected students of grade 11th and grade 12th (First and Second year students) of Commerce Colleges, Degree Colleges and also the private colleges of Layyah to find the accurate ratio of practices of career counseling at basic level in District Layyah.

3.4. Sampling Technique

Researcher has been used stratified sampling technique for sampling.

3.5. Sample Size

Researcher took sample of 100 students with the help of stratified sampling technique.

3.6. Techniques for Data Collection

Quantitative method has been used due to the nature of study. It deliberately gives up on the quantity in order to reach a depth in analysis of the object study. Researcher used survey method as technique for data collection because survey is productive technique for data collection when respondents are available in large number in quantities research.

3.7. Tools for Collection of data

The research instrument used for the collection of data was survey questionnaire. In this questionnaire all the data of students about the previous and current studies and also the future planning about her studies has been gathered by designing structured as well as unstructured questions in it.

3.8. Analysis of Data

The collected data has been analyzed by using some statistical methods. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency count and percent was considered. The information collected in this survey contains ordinal data. The measure of central tendency was also be used with ordinal data mode and Chi-Square. The range is the only appropriate measure of dispersion for ordinal data.

3.9 Field Experience

Data collection is usually a hard nut to crack for the researchers because when they move in the field they have an imaginary world in their mind but the responses might meet the expectations of them because respondents do not want to share their views and ideas as in real they have. The major problem we face is of fake and vague information provided by the respondents. But during this study researcher enjoys all the experiences of field and had a great experience of data collection from students.
Chapter 4
Presentation and Analysis of Data

4. Data Analysis

Data collected from respondents is analyzed in SPSS and their distributions of percentages are showing in following tables and graphs.

Table No. 1
Distribution of respondents regarding their Ages

Category Percentage
14-15 yrs 7
16-17 yrs 80
18-19 yrs 13
20 or above 0
Total 100

Table No.1 indicates 80 percent respondents according to their age are 16 to 17 years old followed by 18 to 19 years, 14 to 15 years and 20 or above years old respectively in present research.
Table No.2
Distribution of respondents regarding their sex

Category Percentage
Male 50
Female 50
Total 100
Table No.2 indicates that both groups have equal ratio of respondents, 50 percent male and 50 percent female.

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Essay UK, Dissertation: Study on career counseling. Available from: <http://muslimschristians.com/essays/miscellaneous/essay-study-on-career-counseling/> [19-01-19].


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