Marine Protected areas are established to restore and sustain biodiversity and fish stocks of an area, after human activities. Management of MPAs are done in different kind of ways. A private investor manages Private MPAs. For this type of management it is harder to complete the subsidy and for that reason not often practiced. Worlds’ first private MPA was Tanzania’s first MPA: Chumbe Island Coral Park (CHICOP). There was no legalisation for establishment and took three years before the CHICOP was accepted. CHICOP established an Advisory Council which included different Governmental of Zanzibar (GoZ) departments, research institution and leaders of villages. Increase the knowledge of marine conservation and success of MPA for fish stocks were important to have little resistance for the MPA. Site selection was based on species that are good indicators for marine conservation and fish stocks. Due to a long negotiation process the cost for establishing a MPA increased. Overnight prices and day visitors’ prices increased to cover this cost. Another risk for the MPA is leasehold. CHICOP can lose the leasehold after expiration time. Working together for legislation for MPAs in the GoZ make CHICOP less sensitive for this. Taking into account all these factors and responding in a successful way, made CHICOP a good successful private MPA.
Table of contents
Successful establishment of worlds’ first private MPA: Chumbe Island Coral Park 4
Collaboration with stakeholders 4
Site selection based on marine conservation and fishery purposes 6
Risk of income 7
Successful establishment of worlds’ first private MPA: Chumbe Island Coral Park
The world’s oceans are negatively affected by human activities, which drive marine ecosystems beyond their natural range of variability (PISCO, 2007). A tool of Integrated Coastal Zone Management has been developed to restore and sustain ocean ecosystems: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs ). MPA boundaries exclude some human activities that could harm the animals, plants and habitat (Kay and Alder, 2005; PISCO, 2007). Many are paper-cited MPAs, which have insufficient staffing and budget, and only few have a more developed management plan (Nordland et al, 2012). MPAs can be managed by governmental organisations, local community, volunteers, collaborative management, by several stakeholders, or by a private investor (Turner, 2015; Kelleher, 1999). Private management is not often practiced because it is harder to compete for subsidy needed for the establishment (Christie and White, 2007). However, CHICOP was Tanzania’s first MPA and world’s first successful private MPA (Nordlund, 2012; Riedmiller, 2000; Salm and Clark, 2000). The key to their successfully establishment highly depended on the collaboration with stakeholders, marine conservation organization and the fisheries department. Furthermore, CHICOP took the following aspects into account during the decision making process to find a suitable place to establish a successful MPA: biogeographic- and ecological criteria, naturalness, economic importance, social importance, scientific importance and feasibility (Kelleher, 1999). For this reason this MPA was used to explain my statement: Key to successful establishment of CHICOP depend on the collaboration with stakeholders, site selection based on conservation and fishery purposes and feasibility of the project. This essay will use the Kelleher (1999) method to explain these different aspects. ‘Collaboration with stakeholders’ will highlight the economic- and social importance of the MPA. The biogeographic- an ecological criteria, naturalness and scientific importance of the MPA will be explained in the ‘Site selection based on marine conservation and fishery stocks’ chapter, and feasibility in the ‘Risk of income’ chapter.
Collaboration with stakeholders
At the start of the negotiation (1990 -1994) Tanzania did not have any policy, legislation or institution to manage an MPA or supported private initiative in conservation. Laws, regulations and administrative practice did not encourage environmentally friendly investment in the sector, while the official tourism policy in Zanzibar emphasized eco-tourism. The main leading sector of Zanzibar at that time was tourism (Riedmiller1&2, 2003; Riedmiller, 2000; Nordlund, 2012; Salm et al. 2000). To realise the project, the investor negotiated with the government for three years and the project was accepted as an environmental tourism destination by 1993 and became the first MPA of Tanzania by 1994. From 1998 CHICOP opened as an eco-tourism destination (Riedmiller, 2000; Riedmiller, 2008; Soley, 1997; Nordlund et al, 2012). An Advisory Council (AC) was developed to increase knowledge of marine protection for all kinds of stakeholders. Till beginning of this century there was little public and governmental concern on destructive fishing methods used and knowledge of the importance of coastal and marine ecosystems. In the national language there is no word for corals. Most people think these are stones or rocks, instead of living animals (Salm, Clark and Siirila, 2000; Nordlund et al, 2012; Tyler, 2006). No environmental information of natural resources’ importance was taught to children. Because of the weak enforcement by the government on fishing, exploitation and anchorage, it was important to teach the communities the importance and profits from MPAs (Salm, Clark and Siirila, 2000; Nordlund et al, 2012). The AC include two representatives from CHICOP and nine representatives from different stakeholder groups and institutions, mainly several Government of Zanzibar (GoZ) departments, research institutions and leaders of villages and added a scientific committee lately (Nordlund, 2013). These groups were involved in the project negotiations in the early years of the park, later discussed the Management Plans 1995-2005 and in 1995 became partners in the AC. The main goal was to raise more conservation awareness and understanding of legal and institutional requirements of MPAs and to improve Zanzibar’s legal framework to support conservation projects (Riedmiller1, 2003). Capacity building with the Government officials made it possible to establish the environmental legislation for private management of protected area in 1997 (Riedmiller1&2, 2003). Involving the Government staff into the project increased knowledge of marine conservation. The raise of conservation awareness and understanding of the legal and institutional requirement of MPAs and prepared the ground for improvement in Zanzibar’s legal framework to support conservation projects (Riedmiller2, 2003). Capacity building by cross-institutional training between the different institutions has given more conservation knowledge in the area and building bounds (Nordlund et al, 2012). CHICOP works together with the University of Sal der Aslaam (UoSdA). The UoSdA does research, provides training for GoZ departments and education for all the staff by marine conservationists and educationists. Within CHICOP people did not traditional fish in the area, which resulted in little resistances (Riedmiller1&2, 2003). To increase knowledge and collaboration with the villagers, CHICOP agreed with the villagers to choose villagers over urban people in employment. Candidates were chosen by villagers on skills; to be literate, good swimmers, experienced fishermen, sympathetic to other project objectives and interested in being trained in new skills (Riedmiller1&2, 2003). Rangers are trained by marine researchers and educationists about; basis coral reef ecology, benefits fully MPAs, aims CHICOP, communicate fellow fishers and villagers, daily monitoring reports, English language training, visitor guidance skills. Regulation of fishing and anchorage in protected reef, guarding closed coral-rag forest habitat are done by rangers, unarmed and by providing information (Nordlund et al, 2012; Salm, Clark and Siirila, 2000). Environmental Education Programs are provided to school children and their teacher from Zanzibar. This program provides information about waste management, biodiversity loss and climate change. Part of this program, is snorkelling to see all the corals. Zanzibar’s religion is Islam. To respect the religion, CHICOP organise snorkelling lessons separately for girls and boys (Nordlund et al, 2012; Salm, Clark and Siirila, 2000). Major income for CHICOP is by ecotourism. Tourists coming to Chumbe Island first get a tour around the island before exploring it on their own. The combination of school children and tourists made a perfect combination and some tourists are delighted to help the rangers with the school children (Riedmiller2, 2003). CHICOP choose to provide education for all kinds of stakeholders to gain knowledge, which led to little resistance within the area.
Site selection based on marine conservation and fishery purposes
Best location for establishing a MPA based on marine conservation and fishery purposes have: a variety of habitats, rare or endangered species; represent nursery or juvenile areas; feeding, breeding or rest areas; degree of genetic diversity within a species; area that have faced low pressure of human disturbance; effects outside the MPA; and value of research and monitoring (Kelleher 1999; Turner 2015). Most coral reefs and coral islands all around Tanzania and Zanzibar are overexploited and destructed by unsustainable and destructive fishing methods (Riedmiller1&2, 2003; Tyler, 2006). An exception was Chumbe island and within the MPA where low human disturbance took place. At the time of establishment Chumbe Island was an uninhabited island. The island is located 8 miles from South West of Zanzibar Town and a military base of shooting was located in the area. No traditional fishing took place because CHICOP bordering an important shipping lane and the small boats would have obstructed large vessels (Nordlund et al. 2012, Riedmiller1&2, 2003). Two different sanctuaries were established; Forest reserve which covers semi-arid coastal forest (22 ha) and the Chumbe Coral Reef Sanctuary (CCRS) on the western shore a fringing coral reef with high biodiversity (Nordlund, 2012; Salm, Clark and Siirila, 2000). The coral reefs represent a safe haven for many fish and other marine organisms that are threatened elsewhere. It helped also fishery stocks, by ensuring of nursery and juvenile area and a spill over effect was shown after establishment (Riedmiller1, 2003; Tyler, 2006). Attracted to the abundant fish in the reef sanctuary, the rare Roseate tern (Sterna dougalli) breeding pair bred on Chumbe Island in 1994 (Riedmiller2, 2003). Aders’ duikers (Cephalophus adersi) were translocated to the island in 2000 doing better than on Zanzibar, where the species faces problem due to poaching and habitat destruction. CCRS represents the most pristine coral reef of the region with 370 species of fish, 200 species of stony coral of at least 90% of all recorded in East Africa and the highest number of taxonomic units of the coral reefs of East Africa (Zvuloni et al, 2010). Close to CHICOP is a military shooting base and a shipping lane. They did not affect the CHICOP negatively (CHICOP, 2013). Monitoring, baseline surveys and many research programs are done within the MPA. Daily reports included monitoring of all the vessels within the MPA, the name of vessel, number and type and kind of activity practiced (CHICOP, 2013). Illegal, unreported and unsustainable (IUU) fisheries is a big problem in Africa’s oceans that led to collapsed fisheries, loss of critical ecosystem and extinction of marine life (Riedmiller, 2008). Fishing is not allowed within CHICOP. Fisherman that try to fish within in the MPA are enforced by providing information given by the rangers, the reaction of the fisherman are recorded within the daily reports. This type of enforcement is well accepted. Four different types of biological monitoring are done: seawater temperature- , coral reef-, sea grass- and humpback whale monitoring. Changes in seawater temperature indicate climate change events such as El Ni??o. An El Ni??o event of 1998 caused severe bleaching and coral mortality events throughout the Indo-Pacific. Monitoring showed that it affected CHICOP but recovery was quicker due to the coral health and diversity within the reef (Riedmiller2 2003; CHICOP, 2013). Annually reef checks are done and focus on species that give indication of predation conditions of the reef, fish stocks and effects of storm damage and coral bleaching. Seagrass beds are important as a nursery, shelter and food supplier for important species. Data collected every three months include species diversity and distribution. On land several monitoring programs are related to the Aders’ duikers and coconut crab (CHICOP, 2013). Institute of Marine Sciences of the UoSdA coordinated research and is regulated by the Chumbe Island Management Plan 2005-2008 and a Memorandum of Understanding (Riedmiller2, 2003; Riedmiller, 2008). Monitoring proved an increase of biodiversity and response to changes (Nordlund, 2012; Salm, Clark & Siirila, 2000; Tyler, 2006). Education programs are also monitored and more awareness of the environment and increased interest in participation within schools and universities (CHICOP, 2013). Objectives of CHICOP were based on marine conservation and restoring fish stocks. Site selection based on the marine conservation was based on the pristine of the coral reef, covered several habitats; possibilities of protecting threatened species like the Aders’ duikers and possibilities for research. For restoration of fish stocks were based important nursery and breeding grounds of target fish species (Riedmiller1&2 2003; CHICOP, 2013; Tyler, 2006). Success of site selection came from the private investor who took into account the objectives for the project.
Risk of income
The overall investment from 1991 was ca. 1,2 Million US$. Two third were financed by the project initiator and one-third by a variety of donors supported several non-commercial project components with small grants (Riedmiller2, 2003; Riedmiller, 2000; Nordlund et al. 2012; Salm et al. 2000). The investment of little over US$ 200.000 was expected from the original feasibility study of 1991 to establish the park, visitors’ centre and 10 guest bungalows. Due to the long negotiation time of three years, the project started later than expected. This resulted in five times higher investment costs and an update of the feasibility report by 1994 (Riedmiller1&2, 2003; Nordlund et al, 2012). The income of CHICOP is non-commercial, while eco-tourism is a commercial source of income. Most of the investment money was spent by 2000; costs since then are covered by income of ecotourism. Low numbers of overnight tourists and day visitors depends on tides and are kept low. This resulted in a doubling of the overnight price and increase in day trip prices raised (Riedmiller2, 2003; Riedmiller, 2000; Nordlund et al, 2012; Salm et al. 2000). Advertising in media and participation in travel fairs were too expensive. To reduce costs for marketing the CHICOP focussed becoming recognised on the international conservation community, winning environmental awards and targeted marketing over the Internet (Riedmiller1&2, 2003; Riedmiller1&2, 2003). Governance problems and institution is mainly due to the legal systems, limited security of tenure and of contractual arrangements. Land leases in Tanzania are renewable upon expiration. Long-term security is weak due to land tenure are on leasehold in Tanzania (Riedmiller1&2, 2003; CHICOP, 2013). There are no legal assurances that the lease and management contracts will be renewed after expiration. Leases can be revoked in case of contravention (CHICOP, 2013). Cancellation of existing contracts and leases ‘for environmental reasons’ are encountered into the Environmental Management and Protection Act 1996. This Act was enacted after establishment of CHICOP, which may in worse-case scenario weaken the contractual setup of CHICOP (CHICOP, 2013). Collaboration between different stakeholders including the government embraces the knowledge and need for protection within the area (CHICOP, 2013). ‘Clientelism’ is in the cultural tradition applied by co-operation with outside partners that offer secure basic subsistence. CHICOP offers job opportunity within the local community and work together with the government. Organisations like CHICOP are relatively influential in policy and decision making (Riedmiller, 2008). CHICOP have faced several kinds of problems that could threat the income of the MPA. Risk of existence of CHICOP by governmental regulation, are responded by founding other ways of covering costs and by making CHICOP important for the local policy on marine conservation, which has reduced the risk of losing its lease hold.
The private investor chose a location where successful marine conservation and restoration of fish stock would be possible. After using good arguments during negotiation time, the CHICOP managed to create worlds’ first private MPA. Working together with stakeholders did embrace more commitment and increased knowledge of conservation in Zanzibar. The AC of the CHICOP created not only a good advisory group in the early years, but still important for the success of CHICOP and forcing the GoZ to take conservation seriously. Bounding with villagers was done by providing job opportunities and so increasing knowledge. Enforcement is done by giving information instead of penalties, rangers are unarmed and this creates an easier way to approach fishers. Job opportunity, ecotourism and a spill over of fish created a higher economic value for the local community. Lease tendency will be a risk, but working together improves the knowledge of marine conservation and makes CHICOP very important for the government. A good combination of dealing with all the factors: collaboration with stakeholders, location choose based on marine conservation and fishery purposes and risk of income, due to other factors/ stakeholder have made CHICOP a successful private MPA.