Essay: Miscellaneous homework questions

1. Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; a freshly exposed surface has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, a building material, and a constituent of various metal alloys.

The metal and its alloys have been used for thousands of years. In the Roman era, copper was principally mined on Cyprus,

2. The cognition subsystem is concerned with making decisions on actions that the machine should undertake to achieve specified goals. This decision-making process takes place usually under conditions of uncertainty. In order to do this the machine must be able to model itself within its environment and be able to predict results of its own actions, and also how the environment may change.

3. Fuzzy logic system was first proposed by Zadeh in 1965 and is based on the concept of fuzzy sets. A fuzzy set is a set whose membership function takes values between zero and one. The range of fuzzy sets in a given window is called the “universe of discourse”. One advantage of fuzzy logic control is that robust control can be achieved for a system whose dynamic characteristics are unknown. Unlike conventional linear logic, it is possible for a parameter to have a membership of more than one set.

4. Neural network systems

An artificial neural network is designed to learn in the same way as a human brain.

A psychology experiment conducted by Professor Naomi Ehrich Leonard [c] found a convergence of the aggregate human decision-making behavior to reward structures with matching points. In this experiment, the human subject in the psychology experiments chooses between two options at regular time intervals and receives a reward after each choice that depends on recent past decisions. From the diagram, human tend to adopt strategies that bring them close to the matching point. However, the matching point is not the optimal reward. By analyzing the results of human psychology experiment, AI automation systems can be built to make optimal decisions.

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