Essay on islamic fundamentalism in South Asia

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i
RECOMMENDATION OF SUPERVISOR ii
LETTER OF RECOMMENDATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv-v
TABLE OF CONTENTS v-x
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xiii-xvi
LIST OF TABLES xi
LIST OF FIGURES xii
ABSTRACT v-vii
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1-38
1.1Background 1-8
1.2 Concept of Dissertation 8
1.3 Statement of Problem 8-9
1.4 Objectives of the Study 9
1.5 Justification of the Study 9-10
1.6 Limitations of the Study 10
1.7 Literature Review 11-37
1.8 Research Methodology 37-38
1.9 Chapter Organization 38
CHAPTER 2. CAUSES OF ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM IN
SOUTH ASIA 39-152
2.1 The Religion of Islam 39-42
2.2 Islamic Fundamentalism 42-59
2.3 Terrorism 59-64
2.4 Islamic Terrorism 64-83
2.5 Causes of Islamic Terrorism in South Asia 83-152
CHAPTER 3. AFFECTED PEOPLE AND COUNTRIES BY
ISLAMIC TERRORISM IN SOUTH ASIA AND ITS
PROBABLE THREATS IN NEPAL 153-202
3.1 Afghanistan 154-159
3.2 Bangladesh 159-162
3.3 Bhutan 163
3.4 India 163-170
3.5 Maldives 170-174
3.6 Nepal 174-176
3.7 Pakistan 176-187
3.8 Sri Lanka 187
3.9 Probable Threats of Islamic Terrorism in Nepal 188-202
CHAPTER 4. POSSIBLE WAYS TO TACKLE ISLAMIC
TERRORISM IN SOUTH ASIA 203-256
4.1 Sharing of Intelligence 207-209
4.2 United Nations’ Role 209-211
4.3 Public Awareness 211-215
4.4 Disrupting Terrorist Organizations’ Finance 216-223
4.5 Strong Law and Order Enforcement 223-231
4.6 Media Management 231-235
ix
4.7 Regional and International Cooperation 235-243
4.8 Democracy in Islamic Societies 243-245
4.9 Countering Radicalization and Violent Extremism 245-253
4.10Addressing the Issues of Af-Pak Border Areas 253-256
CHAPTER 5. FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 257-266
5.1 Findings 257-258
5.2 Conclusion 258-265
5.3 Recommendations 265-266
LIST OF GLOSSARY 267-270
BIBLIOGRAPHY 271-292

x
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

AD- Anno Domini (Year of our Lord in Latin)
Af-Pak- Afghanistan and Pakistan
AI- Ansar-ul-Islam
AML/CTF- Anti-Money Laundering/Counter Terrorism Finance
ANA- Afghan National Army
ANP- Afghan National Police
APF- Armed Police Force
APG- Asia/Pacific Group
AQ- Al-Qaeda
AQAP- Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
BBC- British Broadcasting Corporation
BRA- Baluch Republican Army
BS- Bikram Sambat (Nepalese Calender)
CARs- Central Asian Republics
C3I- Command, Control, Communication and Information
CCTV- Closed Circuit Television
CIA- Central Intelligence Agency
CST- Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal
CT- Counter Terrorism
CTC- Combating Terror Center
CTED- Counter Terrorism Executive Directorate
FATA- Federally Administered Tribal Areas
FATF- Financial Action Task Force
FBI- Federal Bureau of Investigation
FC- Frontier Corps
FIU- Financial Intelligence Unit
Fin TRACA- Financial Transaction and Reports Analysis Center of Afghanistan
HIG- Hizb-i-Islami-Gulbuddin
HQ- Headquarters
HQN- Hakkani Network
HSD- Homeland Security Dialogue
HuJI- Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami
HUJI-B- Harakat ul-Jihad-i-Islami/Bangladesh
HuM- Harkut-ul-Mujahideen
IC- Intelligence Community
ICC- International Criminal Court
IED- Improvised Explosive Devices
IIF- International Islamic Front
IIRO- The International Islamic Relief Organization
ISAF- International Security Assistance Force
ISI- Inter-Services Intelligence
IT- Information Technology
JeM- Jaish-e-Mohammed
J&K- Jammu & Kashmir
JI- Jama’ah Islamiya
JTAC- Joint Terrorism Analysis Center
JTIC- Jane’s Terrorism and Insurgency Center
LeI- Laskar-e-Islam
LeJ- Lashkar-e-Jhangvi
LeT- Lashkar-e-Toiba
LoC- Line of Control
LoI- Leaders of Influence
LTTE- Liberation of Tamil Tigers Eelam
MI6- Military Intelligence Section 6 (The British Intelligence Agency)
MMA- Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal
MOES- Ministry of Education and Sports
MRP- Machine Readable Passport
MWL- Muslim World League
NA- Nepalese Army
NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
NCTC- National Counter Terrorism Center
NGO- Non Government Organization
NID- National Investigation Department
NP- Nepal Police
NWFP- North-West Frontier Province
OIG- Office of Inspector General (CIA)
PATA- Provincially Administered Tribal Areas
PATRIOT- Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism
PFLP- Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
PGS- Project Global Shield
PISCES- Person Identification Secure Comparison and Evaluation System
PLO- Palestine Liberation Organization
PUPJI- Pedoman Umum Perjuangan al-Jama’ah al-Islamiyah
RAND- Research and Development
SAARC- South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SIMI- Students Islamic Movement of India
SLEA- Security and Law Enforcement Agency
SMP- Sipah-e-Mohammed Pakistan
SSP- Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan
SSP- Special Security Plan (Nepal)
START- National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism
TIA- Tribhuvan International Airport
TNSM- Tehrik-e-Nefaz-e-Shariat-e-Mahammadi
TTP- Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan
UNAMA- United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan
UNSCR- United Nations Security Council Resolution
USA- United States of America
USAID- US Agency for International Development
USSR- Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
WFP- World Food Program
WMD- Weapon of Mass Destruction
xvi
LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Selected Development Indicators for Pakistan, the NWFP, and FATA (2003)
Table 2.2: US Drone Attacks in Pakistan’s Tribal Areas
Table 3.1: The List of the Dead and Injured Foreign Nationals
in 26/11 Mumbai Attacks

xi
LIST OF FIGURES/ILLUSTRATIONS

2.1 Jihadi Constitutes
2.2 Deaths Grouped by Perpetrators in the World
2.3 Total Deaths by Terrorism by Country in the World in 2010
2.4 Number of Terrorist Attacks and Dead in the World in 2010
2.5 Islamic Terrorists Incidents Caused Deaths in South Asia from 1990-2010
2.6 Terrorist Incidents by Country in South Asia since 1991-2009
2.7 Rising Trends of Islamic Terrorism in South Asia
2.8 The Afghanistan-Pakistan Militant Nexus (Map)
3.1 Suicide Attacks in Afghanistan during 2001-2010
3.2 People Killed and Wounded by Suicide Bombing in Afghanistan during 2001-2010
3.3 Civilians Death by Year
3.4 Suicide Bombing Incidents by Islamic Terrorists in Bangladesh from 1990-2010
3.5 People Killed and Wounded in Bangladesh by Islamic Terrorists Bombing from 1990-2010
3.6 Terrorists Suicide Bombings in India from 1990-2010
3.7 People Killed and Wounded by Suicide Attacks from 1990-2010
3.8 Suicide Bombing Incidents in Pakistan from 1990-2010
3.9 Number of People Killed and Wounded by Suicide Bombings in Pakistan from 1990-2010
3.10 Terrorist Bombing and Explosions in Pakistan during 1991-2010

xii
ABSTRACT

Islamic terrorism has been one of the biggest security threats of South Asia since the late 20th century. This study aims to study in depth about Islamic terrorism in South Asia in particular and in the world in general. Causes of Islamic terrorism, affected countries and people in South Asia, and ways to tackle the scourge of Islamic terrorism in South Asia are needed to be studied accurately. For this purpose this dissertation is endeavored to write with available materials in three main chapters: (a) chapter one consists the causes of Islamic fundamentalism in South Asia, (b) chapter two consists of the affected people and countries by Islamic terrorism in South Asia and its probable threats in Nepal, and (c) the final chapter consists the possible ways to tackle Islamic terrorism in South Asia.
For the thorough understanding of the issue, the study is limited within the time frame of twenty years starting from 1990 until 2010. This time frame also helped to correlate the trend of Islamic terrorism with the post the post Cold War. Although it doesn’t entirely confine the study within this 20 years of time frame but to link up different issues, the study has also highlighted before 1990 as well so that the study could be more comprehensive and accurate.
A Nepalese scholar has to rely on primary and sources available in the books, internet and TV and documentaries available. Also some inputs from different personalities such as scholars whether Muslims or non-Muslims have been very useful to get inputs for this dissertation. The field research although very less along the Indian border where Nepalese Muslim people have been living for centuries have become valuable to learn Muslim way of thinking, living etc.
All these data from wide range of sources are analytically used in a descriptive way in this dissertation to make easy to understand for all the concerned. This dissertation is mainly focused in the South Asian region but it is an endeavor to contribute something for the world peace and stability too.
This study finds that Islam is the religion of peace and has nothing to do with contemporary religiously motivated terrorism. But due to radical Muslim groups within the Islamic world, Islamic terrorism has become a big concern for regional as well as world peace and security since the late 20th century. Especially, after the end of the Cold War or after the defeat and withdrawal of the USSR from Afghanistan in 1989, Al-Qaeda, Taliban, Lashkar-e-Toiba (LeT) etc, the Islamic fundamentalist groups, have been playing leading role in the religious terrorism in South Asia. Pakistan and Afghanistan are the most affected countries by Islamic terrorism. Most of the victims are innocent Muslim people.
There are many reasons which caused increasing Islamic terrorism in South Asia. Some of the major reasons among them, the vacuum left by international community in Afghanistan and Pakistan (Af-Pak) region gave Islamic fundamentalist groups to get stronger in all aspects like money, manpower, weapons, tactics, trainings etc. Thus Afghanistan and Pakistan, became the center stage of Islamic terrorism in South Asia.
In a way, Islamic terrorism supports not only the phenomenon of the clash of civilizations as prominent Harvard professor Samuel P Huntington opines, between the West and the Islamic world in higher level, it further suggests that South Asia in particular has seen sectarian violence primarily between Shia and Sunni sects within Islam, between Islamic fundamentalists and respective government, and proxy wars between Pakistan and India using Islamic fundamentalists for their national security interests. Iranian Revolution of 1979 also played a significant role to inspire sectarian violence between Shia-Sunni sects in South Asia.
Islamic terrorism is a transnational terrorism and has no boundary. Therefore no country is immune to it. And also there is no single solution to it. South Asian countries should be engaged in many fronts to tackle Islamic terrorism successfully. It should be tackled with a regional and international cooperation making a top concern. Issues like Kashmir issue in South Asia and Palestine issue in the Middle East should be resolved pragmatically by all the concerned so that new recruits are not lured and radicalized using these grievances by the Islamic fundamentalists. Any terrorism without funding cannot survive longer and for that all the countries should work together to stop funding. Radicalization in madrassas and mosques should be scrutinized periodically in any country and law and order of the countries must be effective. Internet has become an important tool for terrorist organizations for psychological warfare, recruitment, and different trainings like bomb making etc. Therefore a proper security measures should be adopted by every country to trace and neutralize these activities.
Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), has become epicenter of Islamic terrorism. Pakistan’s FATA the least developed and politically isolated area in Pakistan with remote and rugged mountainous terrain needs to be addressed first to settle the issue of Islamic terrorism in South Asia.
Terrorism has a long history. It’s not going to fade away in near future. Islamic terrorism has become a big security concern of South Asia for more than twenty years. All the people of South Asia as well as of the world whether they are Muslims or non-Muslims should work together for world peace and security for the benefit of entire human beings.
vii

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