This research report draws its conclusions and recommendations from the case study of Matsamo with regard to impacts of land reform programme on emerging farmers. The case study is located within the Nkomazi Local Municipality. In terms of the spheres of Government in South Africa, Nkomazi is a local Government located within and in the eastern part of the Ehlanzeni District Municipality of Mpumalanga Province. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of land reform programme on emerging farmers on Matsamo community. The report was written on the idea that there are grave challenges for emerging farmers who are land reform beneficiaries and it often affects the concepts of livelihoods. The main challenges that are facing this community are lack of institutional support, technical support to farmers, and planning processes. These challenges affect productivity and the opportunities of ensuring that the emerging farmers obtain material benefits from the land acquired. The study identified policy gaps in terms of policy implementation. The research approach taken was initially to review the available literature on land reform in South Africa and elsewhere. This Chapter deals with the achievement of its objectives, constraints, summary of research and recommendation as well as future research arising from this important study. South Africa has some of the finest pieces of legislation and policies on land reform. There are some striking findings of this research that the provision of land alone is not enough to ensure productive use of that land and to make a positive difference to people’s livelihoods.
5.2 FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO SUCCESS OR FAILURES OF EMERGING FARMERS
The findings of this research revealed a number of factors that contribute to the success and failures of emerging farmers.
5.2.1 FACTORS FOR SUCCESS
The findings of this research have showed that the provision of support promotes the use of land to produce for the market and leads to the expansion and growth in agricultural production for self-provisioning and amongst land reform beneficiaries. Access to complementary resources is another factor that contributes to the success of emerging farmers because the more assets (equipment, technological knowledge and manpower) a farmer has, the more outputs will be realised. For the groups in this study, agricultural production could probably be improved by appropriate extension service and support in training, advice, ploughing, and access to inputs, small scale irrigation and marketing where necessary
FACTORS FOR FAILURE
A lack of internal coordination within and between different governmental departments and a general lack of relevant skills among staff
Through farm management training VKB also accords emerging farmers skills in business planning. Interviews with emerging farmers revealed that the extension services from the DoA were either non-existent, generally poor and not
5.2 ABSENCE OF SUPPORT SERVICES DEPRIVE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE EMERGING FARMERS ACQUIRED LAND THROUGH LAND REFORM PROGRAMME.
Land based livelihoods have generally been undervalued. Support needs for land reform beneficiaries also differ according to their needs and aspirations. For instance, in this research I am looking at the needs of emerging farmers. From the findings of this research, emerging’s farmers needs include supply of farm inputs, having the necessary skills such as technical farming skills, management skills and financial management, extension of services and the like. Substantiation from this research demonstrates that emerging farmers are facing critical operational problems, including those related to limited administrative skills, lack of management skills, lack of financial resources and limited training and development programmes. Also, what has been demonstrated is that support from government and non-government is not available to emerging farmers on Matsamo; this is substantiated by the (80%) of the response of the emerging farmers agreeing that there is an absence of government and non-government support.
Interviews with emerging farmers revealed that the extension services from the DoA were poor and not helping
5.4 THE CONSTRAINTS THAT EMERGING FARMERS COME ACROSS
From the previous Chapter, I can argue that the value of land reform fairly lies in the fulfilment of its promises to generate agricultural growth and the role that emerging farmers can play in this venture. Such growth would be characterised by the increase in the number of emerging farmers that become economically viable or that may have crossed over to be commercial farmers.
5.4.1 LACK OF GOVERNMENT CAPACITY AND PLANNING
The study exposes the countless of problems the government is experiencing with regard to capacity, planning and constraints in implementing land reform projects. The DRDLF assigned personnel to deal with land claims or land reform project issues with little or no understanding of the livelihoods, knowledge of technical terms and concepts of emerging farmers. This shows that there will be constraints in tackling problems related with emerging farmers. One farmer even mentioned that the government deploy people who have little or no knowledge about their area. He further mentioned that, government personnel work on make on paper and implement decision on paper without knowing exactly what’s on the ground. Capacity at the government is also worsened by deployment policies ensuring that even people without qualifications and experience are appointed to government positions. Evidence from this research demonstrates that emerging farmers are facing critical operational problems, including those related to limited administrative skills, lack of human resource management skills, lack of financial resources and limited training and development programmes. These are the same challenges that were identified by Claassen et al. (2002). This suggests that the challenges facing emerging.
Planning for land reform needs to be more participatory, more flexible and more realistic, and to be properly linked to post-planning implementation. The evidence of Matsamo suggests that plans often lack clarity in terms of who will provide what support to the emerging farmers.
The key constraints to delivery are the inadequate government capacity for land reform:
‘ scarcity of human resources at government level;
‘ lack of coordination and integration with other spheres of government and departments;
‘ lack of effective organizational, technical and managerial support to new farmers and land reform beneficiaries beyond the point of land acquisition.
Technical support without the necessary finances is inadequate since beneficiaries will not be in a position to purchase the vital farm inputs required for the project.
This required coordination and joint planning by relevant departments and, in particular, joint planning and policy development in the Departments of Agriculture and Housing
Relationship management between the farmers, district municipalities and local government on issues concerning services and infrastructure maintenance