Essay: Bottle water vs tap water – draft

The bottled water market is a fast growing drinks market in the world. Water represents ‘power’ and ‘energy’. In the water market, bottled waters are prized from pence to hundred. Some consumers said branded waters does not represents value for money because they think bottled water doesn’t tastes better than tap water. But survey after survey has shown that few people actually tell the difference among bottled water or between bottled water and tap water when tasting water samples served out of finical unmarked containers at the same temperature (Gleick and Peter, 2010). Although there are some argues between the value of branded water, global bottle water consumption was estimated at about 200 billion dollars in 2015(statista, 2015). BBC research reported that during the next five years the market is proposed to reach 195.4 billion dollars (BBC, 2013).
In order to gain more market share in the bottled water market, brands use various ways to gain attentions. To achieve target groups, brands need to ‘reading’ consumer psychology. Understanding what type of product consumers are looking for support brands to design the market strategy. When consumers want to buy a bottled of water, consumer behavior will directly influenced by their psychology. For instants, the identity matches, bottle packaging, advertising and etc. Therefore, to offer an insight into consumer psychology benefits brands in market share, this paper analyses the relationship between some global bottled water brands and consumer psychology. The aim of this study is to understand how bottled water brand attract consumer attentions through consumer.

The following is my framework, not confirmed yet.

First chapter discuss the benefits of having a bottled water. It is a short introduction about popular water brands. After that, is the challenge that global water brands are facing at.
In the second chapter, readers can find out how brands apply consumer psychology in brands and campaigns.
Finally, author concludes the importance of understanding consumer psychology and a recommendation is in the end.

Chapter 1
Bottled water VS tap water
Bottled water versus tap water always contains a hot topic in the society. A lot of reports have claims out that bottled water doesn’t taste better or even worse than tap water (TEILLET et al., 2010; Jakus et al., 2009; Saylor, Prokopy and Amberg, 2011). Although numbers researches showed that bottled water doesn’t value to its price, sales of volume in bottled water market continue to increase. To figure the reason why consumers keep shopping bottled water, we need know why people shopping bottled water. Compare with tap water, bottled water has quite a lot strengths. Firstly, bottles offer convince to consumers because most of water bottled use plastic as the material. Secondly, consumer can get a bottle of water in every shop instead of find a water fountain. Thirdly, different bottles have their own appearance it provides consumers a wide range of choose to different from others. Therefore, in order to be ‘the lucky one’ brands, agencies starts a competition on attract consumers (understand consumer psychology) via different market strategies.

Consumer psychology
The bottled water market is larger than before, more and more beverages companies such as Pepsi’s, Coca-Cola have join into the competition. Therefore, to gain more market share in the bottled water war, firstly firms need to target a particular target market.
Nestle owns more than 60 water brands, it hold top two market share in global market (Nestle, 2014). In 2013, it launched its new bottle water brand: Resource. Resource aims to target high-earn females who care about their health and lifestyle. The premium bottled water market has dominated by Evian and Fiji before Resource launched. However, Nestle claim they care more about what female need than other brands. For example, the electrolytes that can make them looks prettier. Consumer psychology defined as to understand why and how firms engage in consumer activities, as well as how they affect them. In the research of consumer psychology, the commonly researched area includes decision-making, perception and attention, motivation of consumer behavior and influences of advertising. In Resource’s ads, it highlight that the bottle water is 100% spring water and use recycled plastic which can low pollution to the earth. Those information deliver signal to psychology of target group that: ‘you deserve it”These areas above are most commonly linked to how manufacturer and advertisers attempt to influence consumer decision to purchase a brand or product (Jansson-Boyd, 2010). Without study of what affects consumer’s consumption, one can never truly successful in the market.

Although water has divided into mental water, still water, spring water and speaking water, Scientists and nutrition experts expressed that bottled water tastes almost same. The main difference that could occur psychological reactions is the appearance of the bottle and advertising promotion.
When people buy bottle of water, what they are often buying is the bottle itself, as much as the water.
The appearance of water bottled can influence consumers on making decisions. First thing that consumers do during consumption is to conduct a visual search on order to locate a target they can focus upon. Distinctive bottle shape, volume or bottle design helps to build brand image. Moreover, a well-designed bottle makes it stand out from competitors. ALKAQUA is a Chinese local bottled water brand that has been on the market for four years. Although it is a ‘new’ member in water market, it did a good job in the Chinese market. Unlike other brands, the biggest difference is it has a creative design for the bottle. Color and light have a powerful influence on our unconscious minds, a fact that savvy marketers use to their advantage (Yarrow, 2014). Many water brands chose blue as a background of the label (Kallen, 2009). However, ALKAQUE engage consumers with pure ocean blue to stand out; it’s more clear and fresh than other brands. In psychology theory’different colors represent for different meanings. Dual Process Model has been widely embraced in the field of advertising (Rodgers and Thorson, 2012). It posit that people often use peripheral cues to embedded in the context of advertising lead us to apply judgmental rules to make quick decisions or ” (Cacioppo, Petty and Losch, 1986). Brands take advantages in heuristics colors to build a meaningful atmosphere (fresh, clean, pure) to reach consumers performance. Moreover, ALKAQUE has a unique oval sharp of label and the layout of fonts to explain it is as pure as they think. Colors and fronts on packaging play a crucial role. It is an important factor to target those consumers who are not familiar with the product (Bolles, 2015).

Another well-known bottled water design case is Watson, a Hong Kong brand. In 2002, Watson was the hope of changing the brand image and attracts more young consumers. A large use of bright light green makes the bottle of water mostly selected brand from the shelf. Watson’s mineral water even becomes an essential small kettle ‘ caps can be directly used as a cup for students. Although this design allows engineering department spent a lot of time, and the overall cost is over budget, the design of the Watsons Water market share increased by 20 %. This design also won the 2004 ‘Bottled Water of the World ‘Global Design Award.

Advertising and promotion
Accompanying the promotion of bottled water by multinational bottled water companies has been the instilling of doubt in the overall quality of tap water. Over half of the population surveyed in a 2001 water quality survey (Parag and Roberts, 2009) had concerns about the quality of their drinking water. In the theory of uncertainty avoidance (UAI), when firms feel threated by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations (Mooij, 1998). In the case of bottled water brands, brands try to avoid argues from its purity attribute, which is often symbolized the brand in a nature setting.

Emotion in advertising
Researchers have increasingly recognized that advertisements that positively influence receivers’ feelings and emotion can be extremely successful for certain product and situations. Along with the trend toward more advertising directed at emotions, there has been a corresponding increase in efforts to measure consumers’ affection and emotional reactions to advertisements. In this chapter explains how bottled water brand use emotion to engage with consumers.
Evian: baby& me
Nowadays, advertisers have come to realize that traditional media are not effective in conveying messages to consumers (Rodgers and Thorson, 2012). Different like traditional advertisings, new media increases communication between products and consumers. Evian act as a top water brand in many years. The slogan ‘Live Young’ claims out the attribute of the brand. Evian launched a well-known water campaign worldwide called: baby & me. It is a digital campaign aimed to target upper socio-professional category audience to push the youth platform as the main brand benefit to justify its value. To avoid voice of bottled water doesn’t healthier than tap water. The big idea of the campaign was to reconnect the deep meaning of the youth benefit and to give consumers the opportunity to experience it. Today, emotion is a conceptualized as an organizing force related to key human needs. Evian catch information of ‘keep youth forever’ from contemporary to target more audience to increase campaign engagement. Consumers can emotionally attract by the message that they accepted. The campaign didn’t express youth by a metaphor; it crafted a digital playful experience in which each and every person could be involved. Moreover, this campaign invited people to share photographs on the social media platform to target the brand’s fans, clients& friends, as they are the brand advocates. The marketing objective was successfully achieved in all target market. The brand decided to put back Youth message at the core of its brand platform. As people turned the campaign into a global success, Evian became a global and digital brand, showing the immense power of social media. The campaign reinforce the youth message and build proximity to keep filling brand preference and bonding People believes that drink Evian allow a youth and health body. About 90% of the views came from the 6,5 million times the film was shared on social media platforms. Sales volume and value market share rose in all markets, including a remarkable 30% increase in sales in the UK immediately after the ad was launched.


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